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Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein.

Bettler J, Zimmer JP, Neuringer M, DeRusso PA - Eur J Nutr (2009)

Bottom Line: Mean serum lutein increased from baseline in each formula group except the unfortified group.Breastfed infants have higher mean serum lutein concentrations than infants who consume formula unfortified with lutein.These data suggest approximately 4 times more lutein is needed in infant formula than in human milk to achieve similar serum lutein concentrations among breastfed and formula fed infants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wyeth, Collegeville, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants.

Aim of the study: To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein.

Methods: A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infants (n = 26) randomized between 9 and 16 days of age to study formulas containing 20 (unfortified), 45, 120, and 225 mcg/l of lutein. A breastfed reference group was studied (n = 14) and milk samples were collected from their mothers. Primary outcome was serum lutein concentration at week 12.

Results: Geometric mean lutein concentration of human milk was 21.1 mcg/l (95% CI 14.9-30.0). At week 12, the human milk group had a sixfold higher geometric mean serum lutein (69.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 40.3-119) than the unfortified formula group (11.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 8.1-15.8). Mean serum lutein increased from baseline in each formula group except the unfortified group. Linear regression equation indicated breastfed infants had a greater increase in serum lutein (slope 3.7; P < 0.001) per unit increase in milk lutein than formula-fed infants (slope 0.9; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Breastfed infants have higher mean serum lutein concentrations than infants who consume formula unfortified with lutein. These data suggest approximately 4 times more lutein is needed in infant formula than in human milk to achieve similar serum lutein concentrations among breastfed and formula fed infants.

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Scatterplot of serum lutein concentrations (mcg/l) at week 12 in infants fed different concentrations (mcg/l) of lutein containing formula or human milk. Solid circles represent infant formula groups and open triangles represent human milk group. Linear regression equation for formula-fed groups was Yi = −4.4 + 0.9 (formula lutein) (r2 = 0.87, P < 0.001) and for the human milk group was Yi = 1.8 + 3.7 (human milk lutein) (r2 = 0.67, P < 0.001). Baseline serum concentrations did not have a significant effect on final serum concentrations (P = 0.001 for human milk; P < 0.001 for formula) and the slopes shown are based on unadjusted data
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Fig1: Scatterplot of serum lutein concentrations (mcg/l) at week 12 in infants fed different concentrations (mcg/l) of lutein containing formula or human milk. Solid circles represent infant formula groups and open triangles represent human milk group. Linear regression equation for formula-fed groups was Yi = −4.4 + 0.9 (formula lutein) (r2 = 0.87, P < 0.001) and for the human milk group was Yi = 1.8 + 3.7 (human milk lutein) (r2 = 0.67, P < 0.001). Baseline serum concentrations did not have a significant effect on final serum concentrations (P = 0.001 for human milk; P < 0.001 for formula) and the slopes shown are based on unadjusted data

Mentions: A positive linear dose-dependent relationship (Fig. 1) was observed between lutein in the formula and lutein in the serum. The slope of the regression equation was steeper for human milk lutein than lutein in formula. For infants fed human milk, serum lutein concentration increased approximately 3.7 mcg/l for every 1 mcg/l increase in human milk lutein concentration, whereas for infants fed formula, serum lutein concentration increased only 0.9 mcg/l for every 1 mcg/l increase in formula lutein concentration.Fig. 1


Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein.

Bettler J, Zimmer JP, Neuringer M, DeRusso PA - Eur J Nutr (2009)

Scatterplot of serum lutein concentrations (mcg/l) at week 12 in infants fed different concentrations (mcg/l) of lutein containing formula or human milk. Solid circles represent infant formula groups and open triangles represent human milk group. Linear regression equation for formula-fed groups was Yi = −4.4 + 0.9 (formula lutein) (r2 = 0.87, P < 0.001) and for the human milk group was Yi = 1.8 + 3.7 (human milk lutein) (r2 = 0.67, P < 0.001). Baseline serum concentrations did not have a significant effect on final serum concentrations (P = 0.001 for human milk; P < 0.001 for formula) and the slopes shown are based on unadjusted data
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2801838&req=5

Fig1: Scatterplot of serum lutein concentrations (mcg/l) at week 12 in infants fed different concentrations (mcg/l) of lutein containing formula or human milk. Solid circles represent infant formula groups and open triangles represent human milk group. Linear regression equation for formula-fed groups was Yi = −4.4 + 0.9 (formula lutein) (r2 = 0.87, P < 0.001) and for the human milk group was Yi = 1.8 + 3.7 (human milk lutein) (r2 = 0.67, P < 0.001). Baseline serum concentrations did not have a significant effect on final serum concentrations (P = 0.001 for human milk; P < 0.001 for formula) and the slopes shown are based on unadjusted data
Mentions: A positive linear dose-dependent relationship (Fig. 1) was observed between lutein in the formula and lutein in the serum. The slope of the regression equation was steeper for human milk lutein than lutein in formula. For infants fed human milk, serum lutein concentration increased approximately 3.7 mcg/l for every 1 mcg/l increase in human milk lutein concentration, whereas for infants fed formula, serum lutein concentration increased only 0.9 mcg/l for every 1 mcg/l increase in formula lutein concentration.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Mean serum lutein increased from baseline in each formula group except the unfortified group.Breastfed infants have higher mean serum lutein concentrations than infants who consume formula unfortified with lutein.These data suggest approximately 4 times more lutein is needed in infant formula than in human milk to achieve similar serum lutein concentrations among breastfed and formula fed infants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wyeth, Collegeville, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants.

Aim of the study: To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein.

Methods: A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infants (n = 26) randomized between 9 and 16 days of age to study formulas containing 20 (unfortified), 45, 120, and 225 mcg/l of lutein. A breastfed reference group was studied (n = 14) and milk samples were collected from their mothers. Primary outcome was serum lutein concentration at week 12.

Results: Geometric mean lutein concentration of human milk was 21.1 mcg/l (95% CI 14.9-30.0). At week 12, the human milk group had a sixfold higher geometric mean serum lutein (69.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 40.3-119) than the unfortified formula group (11.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 8.1-15.8). Mean serum lutein increased from baseline in each formula group except the unfortified group. Linear regression equation indicated breastfed infants had a greater increase in serum lutein (slope 3.7; P < 0.001) per unit increase in milk lutein than formula-fed infants (slope 0.9; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Breastfed infants have higher mean serum lutein concentrations than infants who consume formula unfortified with lutein. These data suggest approximately 4 times more lutein is needed in infant formula than in human milk to achieve similar serum lutein concentrations among breastfed and formula fed infants.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus