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Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions.

Roca M, Parr A, Thompson R, Woolgar A, Torralva T, Antoun N, Manes F, Duncan J - Brain (2009)

Bottom Line: These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving.Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex.Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Many tests of specific 'executive functions' show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Experiment 1. Regressions of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and verbal fluency on Culture Fair IQ. Points show data for single patients (coloured) and controls (empty); regression line is calculated on combined patient and control data.
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Figure 3: Experiment 1. Regressions of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and verbal fluency on Culture Fair IQ. Points show data for single patients (coloured) and controls (empty); regression line is calculated on combined patient and control data.

Mentions: Also as expected, both Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Verbal Fluency were correlated with Culture Fair. Combining data from patients and controls, Pearson's correlations and (one-tailed) significance levels were r = −0.61, P < 0.001 for Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and r = 0.56, P < 0.001 for Verbal Fluency (Table 2). Scatterplots are shown in Fig. 3, showing that higher Culture Fair IQ was strongly associated with better performance in both executive tasks.Figure 3


Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions.

Roca M, Parr A, Thompson R, Woolgar A, Torralva T, Antoun N, Manes F, Duncan J - Brain (2009)

Experiment 1. Regressions of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and verbal fluency on Culture Fair IQ. Points show data for single patients (coloured) and controls (empty); regression line is calculated on combined patient and control data.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2801324&req=5

Figure 3: Experiment 1. Regressions of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and verbal fluency on Culture Fair IQ. Points show data for single patients (coloured) and controls (empty); regression line is calculated on combined patient and control data.
Mentions: Also as expected, both Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Verbal Fluency were correlated with Culture Fair. Combining data from patients and controls, Pearson's correlations and (one-tailed) significance levels were r = −0.61, P < 0.001 for Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and r = 0.56, P < 0.001 for Verbal Fluency (Table 2). Scatterplots are shown in Fig. 3, showing that higher Culture Fair IQ was strongly associated with better performance in both executive tasks.Figure 3

Bottom Line: These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving.Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex.Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Many tests of specific 'executive functions' show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus