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Association between local traffic-generated air pollution and preeclampsia and preterm delivery in the south coast air basin of California.

Wu J, Ren C, Delfino RJ, Chung J, Wilhelm M, Ritz B - Environ. Health Perspect. (2009)

Bottom Line: Increasing evidence suggests that air pollution adversely affects pregnancy outcomes.The risk of VPTD increased 128% (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 2.15-2.42) and 81% (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71-1.92) for women in the highest NO(x) and PM(2.5) exposure quartiles, respectively.These results provide further evidence that air pollution is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Program in Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-7555, USA. junwu@uci.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy that can lead to substantial maternal and perinatal morbidity, mortality, and preterm birth. Increasing evidence suggests that air pollution adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. Yet few studies have examined how local traffic-generated emissions affect preeclampsia in addition to preterm birth.

Objectives: We examined effects of residential exposure to local traffic-generated air pollution on preeclampsia and preterm delivery (PTD).

Methods: We identified 81,186 singleton birth records from four hospitals (1997-2006) in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California (USA). We used a line-source dispersion model (CALINE4) to estimate individual exposure to local traffic-generated nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and particulate matter < 2.5 mum in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) across the entire pregnancy. We used logistic regression to estimate effects of air pollution exposures on preeclampsia, PTD (gestational age < 37 weeks), moderate PTD (MPTD; gestational age < 35 weeks), and very PTD (VPTD; gestational age < 30 weeks).

Results: We observed elevated risks for preeclampsia and preterm birth from maternal exposure to local traffic-generated NO(x) and PM(2.5). The risk of preeclampsia increased 33% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-1.49] and 42% (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.26-1.59) for the highest NO(x) and PM(2.5) exposure quartiles, respectively. The risk of VPTD increased 128% (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 2.15-2.42) and 81% (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71-1.92) for women in the highest NO(x) and PM(2.5) exposure quartiles, respectively.

Conclusion: Exposure to local traffic-generated air pollution during pregnancy increases the risk of preeclampsia and preterm birth in Southern California women. These results provide further evidence that air pollution is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes.

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Adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for PTD, MPTD, and VPTD by entire-pregnancy exposure quartile (adjusted for maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, parity, prenatal care insurance type, poverty, pyelonephritis, and season of conception).
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f2-ehp-117-1773: Adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for PTD, MPTD, and VPTD by entire-pregnancy exposure quartile (adjusted for maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, parity, prenatal care insurance type, poverty, pyelonephritis, and season of conception).

Mentions: Preeclampsia risk increased with quartiles of modeled NOx and PM2.5 exposures, and the increase was consistent with a linear dose response for NOx (Figure 1). We observed a 33% (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.18–1.49) and 42% (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.26–1.59) increase in risk of preeclampsia for women in the highest NOx and PM2.5 entire-pregnancy exposure quartiles, respectively. We observed increasing risks with increasing quartiles of exposure to modeled NOx and PM2.5 and all preterm birth outcomes, yet the pattern was not always linear with dose (Figure 2). We observed a 128% (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 2.15–2.42) and 81% (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71–1.92) increase in risk of VPTD for women in the highest NOx and PM2.5 entire-pregnancy exposure quartiles, respectively. The dose–response relationships from the quartile categorical analyses were consistent with what we observed from smoothing curves of dose response [see Supplemental Material, Figure 2 (doi:10.1289/ehp.0800334.S1)].


Association between local traffic-generated air pollution and preeclampsia and preterm delivery in the south coast air basin of California.

Wu J, Ren C, Delfino RJ, Chung J, Wilhelm M, Ritz B - Environ. Health Perspect. (2009)

Adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for PTD, MPTD, and VPTD by entire-pregnancy exposure quartile (adjusted for maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, parity, prenatal care insurance type, poverty, pyelonephritis, and season of conception).
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2801174&req=5

f2-ehp-117-1773: Adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for PTD, MPTD, and VPTD by entire-pregnancy exposure quartile (adjusted for maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, parity, prenatal care insurance type, poverty, pyelonephritis, and season of conception).
Mentions: Preeclampsia risk increased with quartiles of modeled NOx and PM2.5 exposures, and the increase was consistent with a linear dose response for NOx (Figure 1). We observed a 33% (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.18–1.49) and 42% (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.26–1.59) increase in risk of preeclampsia for women in the highest NOx and PM2.5 entire-pregnancy exposure quartiles, respectively. We observed increasing risks with increasing quartiles of exposure to modeled NOx and PM2.5 and all preterm birth outcomes, yet the pattern was not always linear with dose (Figure 2). We observed a 128% (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 2.15–2.42) and 81% (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71–1.92) increase in risk of VPTD for women in the highest NOx and PM2.5 entire-pregnancy exposure quartiles, respectively. The dose–response relationships from the quartile categorical analyses were consistent with what we observed from smoothing curves of dose response [see Supplemental Material, Figure 2 (doi:10.1289/ehp.0800334.S1)].

Bottom Line: Increasing evidence suggests that air pollution adversely affects pregnancy outcomes.The risk of VPTD increased 128% (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 2.15-2.42) and 81% (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71-1.92) for women in the highest NO(x) and PM(2.5) exposure quartiles, respectively.These results provide further evidence that air pollution is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Program in Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-7555, USA. junwu@uci.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy that can lead to substantial maternal and perinatal morbidity, mortality, and preterm birth. Increasing evidence suggests that air pollution adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. Yet few studies have examined how local traffic-generated emissions affect preeclampsia in addition to preterm birth.

Objectives: We examined effects of residential exposure to local traffic-generated air pollution on preeclampsia and preterm delivery (PTD).

Methods: We identified 81,186 singleton birth records from four hospitals (1997-2006) in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California (USA). We used a line-source dispersion model (CALINE4) to estimate individual exposure to local traffic-generated nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and particulate matter < 2.5 mum in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) across the entire pregnancy. We used logistic regression to estimate effects of air pollution exposures on preeclampsia, PTD (gestational age < 37 weeks), moderate PTD (MPTD; gestational age < 35 weeks), and very PTD (VPTD; gestational age < 30 weeks).

Results: We observed elevated risks for preeclampsia and preterm birth from maternal exposure to local traffic-generated NO(x) and PM(2.5). The risk of preeclampsia increased 33% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-1.49] and 42% (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.26-1.59) for the highest NO(x) and PM(2.5) exposure quartiles, respectively. The risk of VPTD increased 128% (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 2.15-2.42) and 81% (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71-1.92) for women in the highest NO(x) and PM(2.5) exposure quartiles, respectively.

Conclusion: Exposure to local traffic-generated air pollution during pregnancy increases the risk of preeclampsia and preterm birth in Southern California women. These results provide further evidence that air pollution is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus