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Experimental infection of chickens, ducks and quails with the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus.

Jeong OM, Kim MC, Kim MJ, Kang HM, Kim HR, Kim YJ, Joh SJ, Kwon JH, Lee YJ - J. Vet. Sci. (2009)

Bottom Line: It was found that oropharyngeal swabs showed higher viral titers than in cloacal swabs applicable to all three avian species.However, the ducks had significantly lower viral titers than the chickens or quails.Thus, the three avian species varied significantly in their clinical signs, mortality, tissue virus titers, and duration of virus shedding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang 430-824, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of the H5N1 subtype have spread since 2003 in poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe and Africa. In Korea, the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks took place in 2003/2004, 2006/2007 and 2008. As the 2006/2007 isolates differ phylogenetically from the 2003/2004 isolates, we assessed the clinical responses of chickens, ducks and quails to intranasal inoculation of the 2006/2007 index case virus, A/chicken/Korea/IS/06. All the chickens and quails died on 3 days and 3-6 days post-inoculation (DPI), respectively, whilst the ducks only showed signs of mild depression. The uninoculated chickens and quails placed soon after with the inoculated flock died on 5.3 and 7.5 DPI, respectively. Both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were taken for all three species during various time intervals after inoculation. It was found that oropharyngeal swabs showed higher viral titers than in cloacal swabs applicable to all three avian species. The chickens and quails shed the virus until they died (up to 3 to 6 days after inoculation, respectively) whilst the ducks shed the virus on 2-4 DPI. The postmortem tissues collected from the chickens and quails on day 3 and days 4-5 and from clinically normal ducks that were euthanized on day 4 contained the virus. However, the ducks had significantly lower viral titers than the chickens or quails. Thus, the three avian species varied significantly in their clinical signs, mortality, tissue virus titers, and duration of virus shedding. Our observations suggest that duck and quail farms should be monitored particularly closely for the presence of HPAIV so that further virus transmission to other avian or mammalian hosts can be prevented.

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Gross and microscopic photographs in visceral organs from chickens (A) and ducks (B-F) after intranasal inoculation with A/chicken/Korea/IS/06 virus. The chickens exhibited petechial hemorrhage in the cardiac fat pad (A) while the pancreas of the ducks had mutifocal rounded grayish necrotic foci (B). The histopathological findings in ducks included inflammation of the Purkinje cell layer in the cerebellum and perivascular cuffing (C) and non-supprative necrotizing myocarditis (E). Immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of the virus revealed positive staining in the brain (D) and cardiac muscle (F) of the ducks. C, D, E and F; H&E stain. Scale bars = 100 µm.
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Figure 2: Gross and microscopic photographs in visceral organs from chickens (A) and ducks (B-F) after intranasal inoculation with A/chicken/Korea/IS/06 virus. The chickens exhibited petechial hemorrhage in the cardiac fat pad (A) while the pancreas of the ducks had mutifocal rounded grayish necrotic foci (B). The histopathological findings in ducks included inflammation of the Purkinje cell layer in the cerebellum and perivascular cuffing (C) and non-supprative necrotizing myocarditis (E). Immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of the virus revealed positive staining in the brain (D) and cardiac muscle (F) of the ducks. C, D, E and F; H&E stain. Scale bars = 100 µm.

Mentions: The major clinical signs of the virus-infected chickens were cyanosis, edematous combs and wattles, depression and death. The quails showed depression before death while the ducks showed only mild respiratory signs and slight depression. Upon postmortem examination of the chickens that died from the infection and the ducks that were euthanized on 4 DPI, the predominant lesions in both animals were multifocal, partly coalescent, with hemorrhagic necrosis of the pancreas (6 out of 8 chickens, 5 out of 8 ducks). Petechial hemorrhage of the cardiac fat pad was also observed in 5 out of 8 chickens (Fig. 2). Only slight gross lesions were observed in the infected quails. Histopathologically, necrosis and inflammation were observed in multiple organs of the chickens, whereas moderate meningoencephalitis including perivascular cuffing, severe nonsupprative necrotizing myocarditis and pancreatic epithelial necrosis and vacuolation were observed in the ducks.


Experimental infection of chickens, ducks and quails with the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus.

Jeong OM, Kim MC, Kim MJ, Kang HM, Kim HR, Kim YJ, Joh SJ, Kwon JH, Lee YJ - J. Vet. Sci. (2009)

Gross and microscopic photographs in visceral organs from chickens (A) and ducks (B-F) after intranasal inoculation with A/chicken/Korea/IS/06 virus. The chickens exhibited petechial hemorrhage in the cardiac fat pad (A) while the pancreas of the ducks had mutifocal rounded grayish necrotic foci (B). The histopathological findings in ducks included inflammation of the Purkinje cell layer in the cerebellum and perivascular cuffing (C) and non-supprative necrotizing myocarditis (E). Immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of the virus revealed positive staining in the brain (D) and cardiac muscle (F) of the ducks. C, D, E and F; H&E stain. Scale bars = 100 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2801098&req=5

Figure 2: Gross and microscopic photographs in visceral organs from chickens (A) and ducks (B-F) after intranasal inoculation with A/chicken/Korea/IS/06 virus. The chickens exhibited petechial hemorrhage in the cardiac fat pad (A) while the pancreas of the ducks had mutifocal rounded grayish necrotic foci (B). The histopathological findings in ducks included inflammation of the Purkinje cell layer in the cerebellum and perivascular cuffing (C) and non-supprative necrotizing myocarditis (E). Immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of the virus revealed positive staining in the brain (D) and cardiac muscle (F) of the ducks. C, D, E and F; H&E stain. Scale bars = 100 µm.
Mentions: The major clinical signs of the virus-infected chickens were cyanosis, edematous combs and wattles, depression and death. The quails showed depression before death while the ducks showed only mild respiratory signs and slight depression. Upon postmortem examination of the chickens that died from the infection and the ducks that were euthanized on 4 DPI, the predominant lesions in both animals were multifocal, partly coalescent, with hemorrhagic necrosis of the pancreas (6 out of 8 chickens, 5 out of 8 ducks). Petechial hemorrhage of the cardiac fat pad was also observed in 5 out of 8 chickens (Fig. 2). Only slight gross lesions were observed in the infected quails. Histopathologically, necrosis and inflammation were observed in multiple organs of the chickens, whereas moderate meningoencephalitis including perivascular cuffing, severe nonsupprative necrotizing myocarditis and pancreatic epithelial necrosis and vacuolation were observed in the ducks.

Bottom Line: It was found that oropharyngeal swabs showed higher viral titers than in cloacal swabs applicable to all three avian species.However, the ducks had significantly lower viral titers than the chickens or quails.Thus, the three avian species varied significantly in their clinical signs, mortality, tissue virus titers, and duration of virus shedding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang 430-824, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of the H5N1 subtype have spread since 2003 in poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe and Africa. In Korea, the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks took place in 2003/2004, 2006/2007 and 2008. As the 2006/2007 isolates differ phylogenetically from the 2003/2004 isolates, we assessed the clinical responses of chickens, ducks and quails to intranasal inoculation of the 2006/2007 index case virus, A/chicken/Korea/IS/06. All the chickens and quails died on 3 days and 3-6 days post-inoculation (DPI), respectively, whilst the ducks only showed signs of mild depression. The uninoculated chickens and quails placed soon after with the inoculated flock died on 5.3 and 7.5 DPI, respectively. Both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were taken for all three species during various time intervals after inoculation. It was found that oropharyngeal swabs showed higher viral titers than in cloacal swabs applicable to all three avian species. The chickens and quails shed the virus until they died (up to 3 to 6 days after inoculation, respectively) whilst the ducks shed the virus on 2-4 DPI. The postmortem tissues collected from the chickens and quails on day 3 and days 4-5 and from clinically normal ducks that were euthanized on day 4 contained the virus. However, the ducks had significantly lower viral titers than the chickens or quails. Thus, the three avian species varied significantly in their clinical signs, mortality, tissue virus titers, and duration of virus shedding. Our observations suggest that duck and quail farms should be monitored particularly closely for the presence of HPAIV so that further virus transmission to other avian or mammalian hosts can be prevented.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus