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Ultrasonographic examination of the carpal canal in dogs.

Turan E, Ozsunar Y, Yildirim IG - J. Vet. Sci. (2009)

Bottom Line: Although all the measurements were larger at the proximal level, significant differences between the proximal and distal levels were determined for the cross-sectional area, the perimeter and the transverse diameter of the median nerve.Also, the median nerve was seen at the posteromedial side of the median artery.As a result of this study, the cross-sectional areas of the median nerve ranged between 1.01-2.68 mm(2) at the proximal level and between 0.93-1.91 mm(2) at the distal level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Adnan Menderes, PK: 17, 09016, Isikli-Aydin, Turkey. terkut@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to determine the course of the median nerve and its adjacent structures in the carpal canals of 8 healthy dogs by using high-frequency transducers. Before performing ultrasonography, the transverse and posteroanterior diameters as well as the perimeter of the carpus were measured at just proximal to the side of the carpal pad. The anatomical structures were then determined at two levels of the carpal canal, which were named the proximal and distal levels, on the transverse sonograms. The cross-sectional areas, perimeters and the transverse and posteroanterior diameters of the median nerve were measured at these levels. Although all the measurements were larger at the proximal level, significant differences between the proximal and distal levels were determined for the cross-sectional area, the perimeter and the transverse diameter of the median nerve. On the transverse sonogram, the deep digital flexor tendon was seen in almost the center of the carpal canal like a comma shape and also it had a small concavity on the caudal side. The superficial digital flexor tendon was seen as an ovoid shape on the transverse sonograms and it was located nearly at the posterior side of the carpal canal. Both tendons were seen as intermediate-grade echogenic structures. The median artery was located inside of the concavity of the deep digital flexor tendon. Also, the median nerve was seen at the posteromedial side of the median artery. As a result of this study, the cross-sectional areas of the median nerve ranged between 1.01-2.68 mm(2) at the proximal level and between 0.93-1.91 mm(2) at the distal level.

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Schematic presentation of the probe placement for the proximal (PCCL) and distal (DCCL) carpal canal levels in the left forelimb.
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Figure 1: Schematic presentation of the probe placement for the proximal (PCCL) and distal (DCCL) carpal canal levels in the left forelimb.

Mentions: The hair of the posterior side of the left carpus was clipped and the transverse ultrasonographic scans were obtained following neutral positioning of the left carpal joint. During this process, one dog was sedated with 1.1 mg/kg xylazine (Rompun; Bayer, Germany) intramuscularly because of the dog's bad temper. Ultrasonographic examination was performed with a 7.5-12 MHz linear array transducer (Toshiba Aplio, Japan) at two levels as the proximal and distal carpal canal levels. The probe was placed just proximal and medial to the carpal pad for the proximal (PCCL) and distal (DCCL) carpal canal levels, respectively (Fig. 1). The cross-sectional area (NA), the perimeter (NP), the transverse diameter (NTD) and the posteroanterior diameters (NPAD) of the median nerve were measured from the two levels by tracing with electronic callipers the margin of the nerve at the time of US. Measurements of all the variables were made only one time.


Ultrasonographic examination of the carpal canal in dogs.

Turan E, Ozsunar Y, Yildirim IG - J. Vet. Sci. (2009)

Schematic presentation of the probe placement for the proximal (PCCL) and distal (DCCL) carpal canal levels in the left forelimb.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2801093&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic presentation of the probe placement for the proximal (PCCL) and distal (DCCL) carpal canal levels in the left forelimb.
Mentions: The hair of the posterior side of the left carpus was clipped and the transverse ultrasonographic scans were obtained following neutral positioning of the left carpal joint. During this process, one dog was sedated with 1.1 mg/kg xylazine (Rompun; Bayer, Germany) intramuscularly because of the dog's bad temper. Ultrasonographic examination was performed with a 7.5-12 MHz linear array transducer (Toshiba Aplio, Japan) at two levels as the proximal and distal carpal canal levels. The probe was placed just proximal and medial to the carpal pad for the proximal (PCCL) and distal (DCCL) carpal canal levels, respectively (Fig. 1). The cross-sectional area (NA), the perimeter (NP), the transverse diameter (NTD) and the posteroanterior diameters (NPAD) of the median nerve were measured from the two levels by tracing with electronic callipers the margin of the nerve at the time of US. Measurements of all the variables were made only one time.

Bottom Line: Although all the measurements were larger at the proximal level, significant differences between the proximal and distal levels were determined for the cross-sectional area, the perimeter and the transverse diameter of the median nerve.Also, the median nerve was seen at the posteromedial side of the median artery.As a result of this study, the cross-sectional areas of the median nerve ranged between 1.01-2.68 mm(2) at the proximal level and between 0.93-1.91 mm(2) at the distal level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Adnan Menderes, PK: 17, 09016, Isikli-Aydin, Turkey. terkut@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to determine the course of the median nerve and its adjacent structures in the carpal canals of 8 healthy dogs by using high-frequency transducers. Before performing ultrasonography, the transverse and posteroanterior diameters as well as the perimeter of the carpus were measured at just proximal to the side of the carpal pad. The anatomical structures were then determined at two levels of the carpal canal, which were named the proximal and distal levels, on the transverse sonograms. The cross-sectional areas, perimeters and the transverse and posteroanterior diameters of the median nerve were measured at these levels. Although all the measurements were larger at the proximal level, significant differences between the proximal and distal levels were determined for the cross-sectional area, the perimeter and the transverse diameter of the median nerve. On the transverse sonogram, the deep digital flexor tendon was seen in almost the center of the carpal canal like a comma shape and also it had a small concavity on the caudal side. The superficial digital flexor tendon was seen as an ovoid shape on the transverse sonograms and it was located nearly at the posterior side of the carpal canal. Both tendons were seen as intermediate-grade echogenic structures. The median artery was located inside of the concavity of the deep digital flexor tendon. Also, the median nerve was seen at the posteromedial side of the median artery. As a result of this study, the cross-sectional areas of the median nerve ranged between 1.01-2.68 mm(2) at the proximal level and between 0.93-1.91 mm(2) at the distal level.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus