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Evidence for the predictive remapping of visual attention.

Mathôt S, Theeuwes J - Exp Brain Res (2010)

Bottom Line: Until now, most evidence for predictive remapping has been obtained in single cell studies involving monkeys.Immediately following a saccade, we show that attention has partly shifted with the saccade (Experiment 1).Importantly, we show that remapping is predictive and affects the locus of attention prior to saccade execution (Experiments 2 and 3): before the saccade was executed, there was attentional facilitation at the location which, after the saccade, would retinotopically match the attended location.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. S.Mathot@psy.vu.nl

ABSTRACT
When attending an object in visual space, perception of the object remains stable despite frequent eye movements. It is assumed that visual stability is due to the process of remapping, in which retinotopically organized maps are updated to compensate for the retinal shifts caused by eye movements. Remapping is predictive when it starts before the actual eye movement. Until now, most evidence for predictive remapping has been obtained in single cell studies involving monkeys. Here, we report that predictive remapping affects visual attention prior to an eye movement. Immediately following a saccade, we show that attention has partly shifted with the saccade (Experiment 1). Importantly, we show that remapping is predictive and affects the locus of attention prior to saccade execution (Experiments 2 and 3): before the saccade was executed, there was attentional facilitation at the location which, after the saccade, would retinotopically match the attended location.

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a, b Two schematic example trials of Experiment 1. The saccade goal is denoted by the open circle. a An example of an actual retinotopic trial. b An example of an actual spatiotopic trial. The gray box contains examples of probe positions in different conditions, in trials in which the onset was presented at the center location. c A schematic example trial of Experiment 3 in the actual future retinotopic condition. In this example, the probe and the onset are presented in different visual quadrants, in this case on opposite sides of the horizontal meridian, but it could be on opposite sides of the vertical meridian as well. The gray box contains example stimulus configurations for actual and mirror future retinotopic trials. The probe and the onset could be presented in the same or in different visual quadrants; analysis revealed that there was no effect of visual quadrant (see “Results” of Experiment 3). Visual quadrants are marked by shades of gray for convenience. Actual and mirror spatiotopic trials were included in Experiment 3 as well, but they are not depicted here
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Fig1: a, b Two schematic example trials of Experiment 1. The saccade goal is denoted by the open circle. a An example of an actual retinotopic trial. b An example of an actual spatiotopic trial. The gray box contains examples of probe positions in different conditions, in trials in which the onset was presented at the center location. c A schematic example trial of Experiment 3 in the actual future retinotopic condition. In this example, the probe and the onset are presented in different visual quadrants, in this case on opposite sides of the horizontal meridian, but it could be on opposite sides of the vertical meridian as well. The gray box contains example stimulus configurations for actual and mirror future retinotopic trials. The probe and the onset could be presented in the same or in different visual quadrants; analysis revealed that there was no effect of visual quadrant (see “Results” of Experiment 3). Visual quadrants are marked by shades of gray for convenience. Actual and mirror spatiotopic trials were included in Experiment 3 as well, but they are not depicted here

Mentions: Eighteen naive observers participated in the experiment. Eye movements were recorded using an Eyelink II (SR research). Each trial started with the presentation of a gray fixation dot on a black display at one of four possible locations (Fig. 1a and b). After 500 ms, three additional and identical dots were presented, forming the corners of a 9.0° × 9.0° square. After another 500 ms, the fixation dot reduced in size and one of the adjacent dots turned green, indicating that a saccade had to be made to that location. Participants did not know in advance to which location they had to execute a saccade. At the same time the dot turned green (the saccade cue), an onset stimulus (a 1.8° × 1.8° square) was presented for 100 ms at one of two (given a certain fixation point and saccade cue) possible locations 6.4° from the initial fixation dot and the saccade cue. Participants were instructed to make a saccade to the green dot as quickly as possible. The saccade cue and the onset were presented simultaneously, because a delay between the onset and the saccade cue may lead to inhibition of the onset. Thirty milliseconds after the initiation of the saccade while the eyes were in motion a tilted gray line segment (the probe) was presented for 100 ms. We choose to present the probe in mid-flight (during saccadic suppression) rather than after the saccade to prevent the probe from capturing attention exogenously. The probe was presented sufficiently long for participants to observe it after they had re-fixated. The probe was presented equi-probable at one of four locations. The probe could be presented at the location that previously contained the onset (the actual spatiotopic location), at a location which retinotopically matched the onset location (the actual retinotopic location) or at one of two “Mirror” control locations. Participants made a speeded report of the probe orientation by pressing the “z”-key on a leftwards tilted line segment (\) and the “/”-key on a rightwards tilted line segment (/). The experiment consisted of 48 practice trials, followed by 256 experimental trials.Fig. 1


Evidence for the predictive remapping of visual attention.

Mathôt S, Theeuwes J - Exp Brain Res (2010)

a, b Two schematic example trials of Experiment 1. The saccade goal is denoted by the open circle. a An example of an actual retinotopic trial. b An example of an actual spatiotopic trial. The gray box contains examples of probe positions in different conditions, in trials in which the onset was presented at the center location. c A schematic example trial of Experiment 3 in the actual future retinotopic condition. In this example, the probe and the onset are presented in different visual quadrants, in this case on opposite sides of the horizontal meridian, but it could be on opposite sides of the vertical meridian as well. The gray box contains example stimulus configurations for actual and mirror future retinotopic trials. The probe and the onset could be presented in the same or in different visual quadrants; analysis revealed that there was no effect of visual quadrant (see “Results” of Experiment 3). Visual quadrants are marked by shades of gray for convenience. Actual and mirror spatiotopic trials were included in Experiment 3 as well, but they are not depicted here
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Fig1: a, b Two schematic example trials of Experiment 1. The saccade goal is denoted by the open circle. a An example of an actual retinotopic trial. b An example of an actual spatiotopic trial. The gray box contains examples of probe positions in different conditions, in trials in which the onset was presented at the center location. c A schematic example trial of Experiment 3 in the actual future retinotopic condition. In this example, the probe and the onset are presented in different visual quadrants, in this case on opposite sides of the horizontal meridian, but it could be on opposite sides of the vertical meridian as well. The gray box contains example stimulus configurations for actual and mirror future retinotopic trials. The probe and the onset could be presented in the same or in different visual quadrants; analysis revealed that there was no effect of visual quadrant (see “Results” of Experiment 3). Visual quadrants are marked by shades of gray for convenience. Actual and mirror spatiotopic trials were included in Experiment 3 as well, but they are not depicted here
Mentions: Eighteen naive observers participated in the experiment. Eye movements were recorded using an Eyelink II (SR research). Each trial started with the presentation of a gray fixation dot on a black display at one of four possible locations (Fig. 1a and b). After 500 ms, three additional and identical dots were presented, forming the corners of a 9.0° × 9.0° square. After another 500 ms, the fixation dot reduced in size and one of the adjacent dots turned green, indicating that a saccade had to be made to that location. Participants did not know in advance to which location they had to execute a saccade. At the same time the dot turned green (the saccade cue), an onset stimulus (a 1.8° × 1.8° square) was presented for 100 ms at one of two (given a certain fixation point and saccade cue) possible locations 6.4° from the initial fixation dot and the saccade cue. Participants were instructed to make a saccade to the green dot as quickly as possible. The saccade cue and the onset were presented simultaneously, because a delay between the onset and the saccade cue may lead to inhibition of the onset. Thirty milliseconds after the initiation of the saccade while the eyes were in motion a tilted gray line segment (the probe) was presented for 100 ms. We choose to present the probe in mid-flight (during saccadic suppression) rather than after the saccade to prevent the probe from capturing attention exogenously. The probe was presented sufficiently long for participants to observe it after they had re-fixated. The probe was presented equi-probable at one of four locations. The probe could be presented at the location that previously contained the onset (the actual spatiotopic location), at a location which retinotopically matched the onset location (the actual retinotopic location) or at one of two “Mirror” control locations. Participants made a speeded report of the probe orientation by pressing the “z”-key on a leftwards tilted line segment (\) and the “/”-key on a rightwards tilted line segment (/). The experiment consisted of 48 practice trials, followed by 256 experimental trials.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Until now, most evidence for predictive remapping has been obtained in single cell studies involving monkeys.Immediately following a saccade, we show that attention has partly shifted with the saccade (Experiment 1).Importantly, we show that remapping is predictive and affects the locus of attention prior to saccade execution (Experiments 2 and 3): before the saccade was executed, there was attentional facilitation at the location which, after the saccade, would retinotopically match the attended location.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. S.Mathot@psy.vu.nl

ABSTRACT
When attending an object in visual space, perception of the object remains stable despite frequent eye movements. It is assumed that visual stability is due to the process of remapping, in which retinotopically organized maps are updated to compensate for the retinal shifts caused by eye movements. Remapping is predictive when it starts before the actual eye movement. Until now, most evidence for predictive remapping has been obtained in single cell studies involving monkeys. Here, we report that predictive remapping affects visual attention prior to an eye movement. Immediately following a saccade, we show that attention has partly shifted with the saccade (Experiment 1). Importantly, we show that remapping is predictive and affects the locus of attention prior to saccade execution (Experiments 2 and 3): before the saccade was executed, there was attentional facilitation at the location which, after the saccade, would retinotopically match the attended location.

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