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Multidisciplinary functional MR imaging for prostate cancer.

Kim JK, Jang YJ, Cho G - Korean J Radiol (2009 Nov-Dec)

Bottom Line: Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy.These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies.Therefore, in order to make accurate diagnoses, it is important to comprehensively understand their advantages and limitations, histologic background related with image findings, and their clinical relevance for evaluating prostate cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736, Korea. rialto@amc.seoul.kr

ABSTRACT
Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies. However, each functional MR imaging technique also has inherent challenges. Therefore, in order to make accurate diagnoses, it is important to comprehensively understand their advantages and limitations, histologic background related with image findings, and their clinical relevance for evaluating prostate cancer. This article will review the basic principles and clinical significance of functional MR imaging for evaluating prostate cancer.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Time-intensity curves of prostate cancer (A) and non-cancerous tissue (B). Compared to non-cancerous tissue, prostate cancer tissue shows early and strong enhancement as well as rapid de-enhancement.
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Figure 8: Time-intensity curves of prostate cancer (A) and non-cancerous tissue (B). Compared to non-cancerous tissue, prostate cancer tissue shows early and strong enhancement as well as rapid de-enhancement.

Mentions: The theoretical background of DCE MRI is strongly related with tumor angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is an inevitable requirement for growth beyond a 2 mm diameter, invasion to other organs, and distant metastasis in malignant neoplasms (4). As a result of angiogenesis, the number of vessels and permeability through the vascular wall increases significantly. Furthermore, since cancer tissue has larger interstitial space than normal tissue, it correspondingly shows a greater difference in the concentration of intravenous (IV) contrast material between intravascular and extravascular spaces. In turn; this marked difference in concentration accelerates the contrast transfer through the vascular wall. This characteristic environment results in a unique enhancement pattern for cancer on DCE MRI (e.g., early strong enhancement and rapid de-enhancement) (1, 29, 30) (Fig. 8).


Multidisciplinary functional MR imaging for prostate cancer.

Kim JK, Jang YJ, Cho G - Korean J Radiol (2009 Nov-Dec)

Time-intensity curves of prostate cancer (A) and non-cancerous tissue (B). Compared to non-cancerous tissue, prostate cancer tissue shows early and strong enhancement as well as rapid de-enhancement.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2770824&req=5

Figure 8: Time-intensity curves of prostate cancer (A) and non-cancerous tissue (B). Compared to non-cancerous tissue, prostate cancer tissue shows early and strong enhancement as well as rapid de-enhancement.
Mentions: The theoretical background of DCE MRI is strongly related with tumor angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is an inevitable requirement for growth beyond a 2 mm diameter, invasion to other organs, and distant metastasis in malignant neoplasms (4). As a result of angiogenesis, the number of vessels and permeability through the vascular wall increases significantly. Furthermore, since cancer tissue has larger interstitial space than normal tissue, it correspondingly shows a greater difference in the concentration of intravenous (IV) contrast material between intravascular and extravascular spaces. In turn; this marked difference in concentration accelerates the contrast transfer through the vascular wall. This characteristic environment results in a unique enhancement pattern for cancer on DCE MRI (e.g., early strong enhancement and rapid de-enhancement) (1, 29, 30) (Fig. 8).

Bottom Line: Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy.These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies.Therefore, in order to make accurate diagnoses, it is important to comprehensively understand their advantages and limitations, histologic background related with image findings, and their clinical relevance for evaluating prostate cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736, Korea. rialto@amc.seoul.kr

ABSTRACT
Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies. However, each functional MR imaging technique also has inherent challenges. Therefore, in order to make accurate diagnoses, it is important to comprehensively understand their advantages and limitations, histologic background related with image findings, and their clinical relevance for evaluating prostate cancer. This article will review the basic principles and clinical significance of functional MR imaging for evaluating prostate cancer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus