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Fungal bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues; opportunities & perspectives.

Dashtban M, Schraft H, Qin W - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2009)

Bottom Line: Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall.This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively.In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biorefining Research Initiative, Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Rd, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, P7B 5E1.

ABSTRACT
The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and beta-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

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Schematic picture for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, including the major steps. Hydrolysis and fermentation can be performed separately (SHF, indicated by broken arrows) or as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) however, all bioconversion steps are minimized to one step in a single reactor using one or more microorganisms. Different techniques such as mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression have been used to improve sugars utilization of the microbial biocatalyst as well as activity and/or stability of hydrolytic fungal-derived enzymes in order to improve the overall yields. For reduction of production cost, ethanol production can be integrated with a combined heat and power plant using lignin.
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Figure 1: Schematic picture for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, including the major steps. Hydrolysis and fermentation can be performed separately (SHF, indicated by broken arrows) or as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) however, all bioconversion steps are minimized to one step in a single reactor using one or more microorganisms. Different techniques such as mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression have been used to improve sugars utilization of the microbial biocatalyst as well as activity and/or stability of hydrolytic fungal-derived enzymes in order to improve the overall yields. For reduction of production cost, ethanol production can be integrated with a combined heat and power plant using lignin.

Mentions: The bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues to valuable materials such as ethanol is more complicated than the bioconversion of starch based residues and thus requires four steps of processing, of which the first three are bio-related processes and the fourth is primarily a chemical engineering process that will not be discussed in great detail in this review; i) pretreatment ii) de-polymerization (saccharification) of cellulose and hemicelluloses to soluble monomer sugars (hexoses and pentoses) by a process known as hydrolysis, iii) conversion of these monomeric sugars to valuable products such as ethanol in a fermentation process and iv) separation and purification of the products (Figure 1). In order to improve the yield, each step in the bioconversion process has to be optimized. In addition, process integration has to be considered in order to minimize process energy demand 22.


Fungal bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues; opportunities & perspectives.

Dashtban M, Schraft H, Qin W - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2009)

Schematic picture for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, including the major steps. Hydrolysis and fermentation can be performed separately (SHF, indicated by broken arrows) or as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) however, all bioconversion steps are minimized to one step in a single reactor using one or more microorganisms. Different techniques such as mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression have been used to improve sugars utilization of the microbial biocatalyst as well as activity and/or stability of hydrolytic fungal-derived enzymes in order to improve the overall yields. For reduction of production cost, ethanol production can be integrated with a combined heat and power plant using lignin.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2748470&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic picture for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, including the major steps. Hydrolysis and fermentation can be performed separately (SHF, indicated by broken arrows) or as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) however, all bioconversion steps are minimized to one step in a single reactor using one or more microorganisms. Different techniques such as mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression have been used to improve sugars utilization of the microbial biocatalyst as well as activity and/or stability of hydrolytic fungal-derived enzymes in order to improve the overall yields. For reduction of production cost, ethanol production can be integrated with a combined heat and power plant using lignin.
Mentions: The bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues to valuable materials such as ethanol is more complicated than the bioconversion of starch based residues and thus requires four steps of processing, of which the first three are bio-related processes and the fourth is primarily a chemical engineering process that will not be discussed in great detail in this review; i) pretreatment ii) de-polymerization (saccharification) of cellulose and hemicelluloses to soluble monomer sugars (hexoses and pentoses) by a process known as hydrolysis, iii) conversion of these monomeric sugars to valuable products such as ethanol in a fermentation process and iv) separation and purification of the products (Figure 1). In order to improve the yield, each step in the bioconversion process has to be optimized. In addition, process integration has to be considered in order to minimize process energy demand 22.

Bottom Line: Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall.This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively.In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biorefining Research Initiative, Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Rd, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, P7B 5E1.

ABSTRACT
The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and beta-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus