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The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: translation and validation for a Greek sample.

Vivilaki VG, Dafermos V, Kogevinas M, Bitsios P, Lionis C - BMC Public Health (2009)

Bottom Line: The psychometric measurements that were performed included: two independent samples t-tests, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), reliability coefficients, Explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation and Principal Components Method.The Confirmatory Factor analysis demonstrated that the two factor model offered a very good fit to our data.The area under ROC curve AUC was found 0.7470 and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 8/9 fitted the model sensitivity at 76.7% and model specificity at 68.3%.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece. v_vivilaki@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is an important screening instrument that is used routinely with mothers during the postpartum period for early identification of postnatal depression. The purpose of this study was to validate the Greek version of EPDS along with sensitivity, specificity and predictive values.

Methods: 120 mothers within 12 weeks postpartum were recruited from the perinatal care registers of the Maternity Departments of 4 Hospitals of Heraklion municipality, Greece. EPDS and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) surveys were administered in random order to the mothers. Each mother was diagnosed with depression according to the validated Greek version of BDI-II. The psychometric measurements that were performed included: two independent samples t-tests, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), reliability coefficients, Explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation and Principal Components Method. Confirmatory analysis -known as structural equation modelling- of principal components was conducted by LISREL (Linear Structural Relations). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale.

Results: 8 (6.7%) of the mothers were diagnosed with major postnatal depression, 14 (11.7%) with moderate and 38 (31.7%) with mild depression on the basis of BDI-II scores. The internal consistency of the EPDS Greek version -using Chronbach's alpha coefficient- was found 0.804 and that of Guttman split-half coefficient 0.742. Our findings confirm the multidimensionality of EPDS, demonstrating a two-factor structure which contained subscales reflecting depressive symptoms and anxiety. The Confirmatory Factor analysis demonstrated that the two factor model offered a very good fit to our data. The area under ROC curve AUC was found 0.7470 and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 8/9 fitted the model sensitivity at 76.7% and model specificity at 68.3%.

Conclusion: Our data confirm the validity of the Greek version of the EPDS in identifying postnatal depression. The Greek EPDS scale could be used as a useful instrument in both clinical practice and research.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

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Figure 2: Component Plot in Rotated Space.

Mentions: The exploratory factor analysis on the 10 items of the EPDS revealed two orthogonal factors (KMO measure of sampling adequacy = 0.787 and Bartlett's test of sphericity = 332.886, df = 45, p < 0.0005). Communalities for Greek EPDS questions are presented in Table 2. As the Screeplot (Figure 1) and Component Plot in Rotated Space (Figure 2) indicate there are two factors in the model. Those factors explained 48.97%, as presented in Table 3. The first factor (F1) includes the following items: 7 (sleep disorders), 8 (sadness) and 9 (tearfulness). These are specific symptoms for depressive disorders; therefore we named this subscale 'Depressive Symptoms'. The second factor (F2) is composed of items 4 (anxiety), 5 (panic attacks), and 6 (inability). Therefore F2 represents 'Anxiety'. The loadings of item 10 with F1 and F2 were similar.


The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: translation and validation for a Greek sample.

Vivilaki VG, Dafermos V, Kogevinas M, Bitsios P, Lionis C - BMC Public Health (2009)

Component Plot in Rotated Space.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2748079&req=5

Figure 2: Component Plot in Rotated Space.
Mentions: The exploratory factor analysis on the 10 items of the EPDS revealed two orthogonal factors (KMO measure of sampling adequacy = 0.787 and Bartlett's test of sphericity = 332.886, df = 45, p < 0.0005). Communalities for Greek EPDS questions are presented in Table 2. As the Screeplot (Figure 1) and Component Plot in Rotated Space (Figure 2) indicate there are two factors in the model. Those factors explained 48.97%, as presented in Table 3. The first factor (F1) includes the following items: 7 (sleep disorders), 8 (sadness) and 9 (tearfulness). These are specific symptoms for depressive disorders; therefore we named this subscale 'Depressive Symptoms'. The second factor (F2) is composed of items 4 (anxiety), 5 (panic attacks), and 6 (inability). Therefore F2 represents 'Anxiety'. The loadings of item 10 with F1 and F2 were similar.

Bottom Line: The psychometric measurements that were performed included: two independent samples t-tests, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), reliability coefficients, Explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation and Principal Components Method.The Confirmatory Factor analysis demonstrated that the two factor model offered a very good fit to our data.The area under ROC curve AUC was found 0.7470 and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 8/9 fitted the model sensitivity at 76.7% and model specificity at 68.3%.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece. v_vivilaki@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is an important screening instrument that is used routinely with mothers during the postpartum period for early identification of postnatal depression. The purpose of this study was to validate the Greek version of EPDS along with sensitivity, specificity and predictive values.

Methods: 120 mothers within 12 weeks postpartum were recruited from the perinatal care registers of the Maternity Departments of 4 Hospitals of Heraklion municipality, Greece. EPDS and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) surveys were administered in random order to the mothers. Each mother was diagnosed with depression according to the validated Greek version of BDI-II. The psychometric measurements that were performed included: two independent samples t-tests, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), reliability coefficients, Explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation and Principal Components Method. Confirmatory analysis -known as structural equation modelling- of principal components was conducted by LISREL (Linear Structural Relations). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale.

Results: 8 (6.7%) of the mothers were diagnosed with major postnatal depression, 14 (11.7%) with moderate and 38 (31.7%) with mild depression on the basis of BDI-II scores. The internal consistency of the EPDS Greek version -using Chronbach's alpha coefficient- was found 0.804 and that of Guttman split-half coefficient 0.742. Our findings confirm the multidimensionality of EPDS, demonstrating a two-factor structure which contained subscales reflecting depressive symptoms and anxiety. The Confirmatory Factor analysis demonstrated that the two factor model offered a very good fit to our data. The area under ROC curve AUC was found 0.7470 and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 8/9 fitted the model sensitivity at 76.7% and model specificity at 68.3%.

Conclusion: Our data confirm the validity of the Greek version of the EPDS in identifying postnatal depression. The Greek EPDS scale could be used as a useful instrument in both clinical practice and research.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus