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Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Demonstration of the technique to measure a single vertical pocket of liquor. Hydramnios is present in this case
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Figure 0035: Demonstration of the technique to measure a single vertical pocket of liquor. Hydramnios is present in this case

Mentions: Polyhydramnios means excess amniotic fluid; the condition is also known as hydramnios [Figure 35]. Clinical presentation is usually with a large-for-date uterus and nonpalpable fetal parts. Idiopathic hydramnios is not uncommon. Similarly, late-onset mild hydramnios is usually nonpathological. It is not unusual to come across a case of severe polyhydramnios without any demonstrable anomaly. One has to keep in mind the fact that there exist certain anomalies that may not be evident on USG. One of them is a tracheo-esophageal fistula. Sinking of the fetus at the bottom of the amniotic fluid in a case of severe hydramnios indirectly indicates a high probability of an anomaly. The long list of associated anomalies is headed by gastrointestinal tract anomalies, of which the most frequent are atresias, diaphragmatic hernias, gastroschisis, etc. Musculoskeletal anomalies too are quite common associations and so are craniospinal anomalies. Diabetes, hydrops, and twin-to-twin transfusion also are frequent contributors to the list. Preterm delivery is a common association with polyhydramnios and it is the etiology of the polyhydramnios that is more important than just the quantity of fluid. Thus the incidence of premature delivery is more common when the polyhydramnios is associated with an anomaly.[60]


Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Demonstration of the technique to measure a single vertical pocket of liquor. Hydramnios is present in this case
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2747450&req=5

Figure 0035: Demonstration of the technique to measure a single vertical pocket of liquor. Hydramnios is present in this case
Mentions: Polyhydramnios means excess amniotic fluid; the condition is also known as hydramnios [Figure 35]. Clinical presentation is usually with a large-for-date uterus and nonpalpable fetal parts. Idiopathic hydramnios is not uncommon. Similarly, late-onset mild hydramnios is usually nonpathological. It is not unusual to come across a case of severe polyhydramnios without any demonstrable anomaly. One has to keep in mind the fact that there exist certain anomalies that may not be evident on USG. One of them is a tracheo-esophageal fistula. Sinking of the fetus at the bottom of the amniotic fluid in a case of severe hydramnios indirectly indicates a high probability of an anomaly. The long list of associated anomalies is headed by gastrointestinal tract anomalies, of which the most frequent are atresias, diaphragmatic hernias, gastroschisis, etc. Musculoskeletal anomalies too are quite common associations and so are craniospinal anomalies. Diabetes, hydrops, and twin-to-twin transfusion also are frequent contributors to the list. Preterm delivery is a common association with polyhydramnios and it is the etiology of the polyhydramnios that is more important than just the quantity of fluid. Thus the incidence of premature delivery is more common when the polyhydramnios is associated with an anomaly.[60]

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus