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Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Two-vessel cord. Transverse section through the cord (arrow) shows one vein and one artery
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Figure 0031: Two-vessel cord. Transverse section through the cord (arrow) shows one vein and one artery

Mentions: Single umbilical artery is the most frequently encountered anomaly of the umbilical cord [Figure 31]. When it occurs in isolation, pregnancy outcome is good. However, in the presence of concurrent structural anomalies, chances of chromosomal anomalies being present are high.[48] The incidence of single umbilical artery is 0.2–1%. Probable etiologies include primary agenesis of one of the arteries, secondary atrophy of a previously normal artery, or persistence of the original single allantoic artery of the body stalk. The single umbilical artery is usually larger than normal and may be as big as a vein. The long list of associated structural anomalies spares practically no system but, amongst the chromosomal anomalies, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and Turner syndrome are the most common.[49]


Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Two-vessel cord. Transverse section through the cord (arrow) shows one vein and one artery
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2747450&req=5

Figure 0031: Two-vessel cord. Transverse section through the cord (arrow) shows one vein and one artery
Mentions: Single umbilical artery is the most frequently encountered anomaly of the umbilical cord [Figure 31]. When it occurs in isolation, pregnancy outcome is good. However, in the presence of concurrent structural anomalies, chances of chromosomal anomalies being present are high.[48] The incidence of single umbilical artery is 0.2–1%. Probable etiologies include primary agenesis of one of the arteries, secondary atrophy of a previously normal artery, or persistence of the original single allantoic artery of the body stalk. The single umbilical artery is usually larger than normal and may be as big as a vein. The long list of associated structural anomalies spares practically no system but, amongst the chromosomal anomalies, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and Turner syndrome are the most common.[49]

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus