Limits...
Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A well-defined anechoic umbilical cord cyst (c) is seen (A). Other associated findings in this case (B) include hydramnios (arrow) and arthrogryposis (arrowhead)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2747450&req=5

Figure 0028: A well-defined anechoic umbilical cord cyst (c) is seen (A). Other associated findings in this case (B) include hydramnios (arrow) and arthrogryposis (arrowhead)

Mentions: Umbilical cord cysts are frequently seen even in very early gestation and the majority regresses at the end of the first trimester, though some may persist [Figure 26]. Two types exist: true cysts and pseudocysts. Both have a known association with aneuploidy. The former are less common. Pseudocysts frequently regress. They have no epithelial lining and there is a localized edema of the Wharton's jelly. Umbilical cord cysts are grossly underreported. Differentiation between a true cyst and a pseudocyst is not very important since both are associated with anomalies [Figure 27 and 28]. Trisomy 13 and 18, omphaloceles, and patent urachus are the commonest associations.[41] Waldo et al. feel that there is a strong association of pseudocysts with chromosomal defects and structural anomalies, regardless of the USG features.[42]


Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

A well-defined anechoic umbilical cord cyst (c) is seen (A). Other associated findings in this case (B) include hydramnios (arrow) and arthrogryposis (arrowhead)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2747450&req=5

Figure 0028: A well-defined anechoic umbilical cord cyst (c) is seen (A). Other associated findings in this case (B) include hydramnios (arrow) and arthrogryposis (arrowhead)
Mentions: Umbilical cord cysts are frequently seen even in very early gestation and the majority regresses at the end of the first trimester, though some may persist [Figure 26]. Two types exist: true cysts and pseudocysts. Both have a known association with aneuploidy. The former are less common. Pseudocysts frequently regress. They have no epithelial lining and there is a localized edema of the Wharton's jelly. Umbilical cord cysts are grossly underreported. Differentiation between a true cyst and a pseudocyst is not very important since both are associated with anomalies [Figure 27 and 28]. Trisomy 13 and 18, omphaloceles, and patent urachus are the commonest associations.[41] Waldo et al. feel that there is a strong association of pseudocysts with chromosomal defects and structural anomalies, regardless of the USG features.[42]

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus