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Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transverse images through the cord show the method of estimation of the cross-sectional area (A) of the cord and of the umbilical vein (B)
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Figure 0021: Transverse images through the cord show the method of estimation of the cross-sectional area (A) of the cord and of the umbilical vein (B)

Mentions: Weissman performed USG measurements of the umbilical cord, adding yet another biometric parameter to the list of measurements for a growing fetus. The amount of Wharton's jelly also could be calculated from these measurements by subtracting the area of the vein + the area of the arteries from the area of the cord [Figure 21].[34] Our nomograms of the cord (unpublished data) also follow a similar trend. The cord diameter, as well the umbilical vein and artery diameters, are easy to measure [Figure 22] and we have our own nomograms for these too (unpublished data). However, the cord area and Wharton's jelly area in our population are much lower than that reported by Weissman. The probable cause for this disparity is that the women in our groups were undernourished.


Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Transverse images through the cord show the method of estimation of the cross-sectional area (A) of the cord and of the umbilical vein (B)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2747450&req=5

Figure 0021: Transverse images through the cord show the method of estimation of the cross-sectional area (A) of the cord and of the umbilical vein (B)
Mentions: Weissman performed USG measurements of the umbilical cord, adding yet another biometric parameter to the list of measurements for a growing fetus. The amount of Wharton's jelly also could be calculated from these measurements by subtracting the area of the vein + the area of the arteries from the area of the cord [Figure 21].[34] Our nomograms of the cord (unpublished data) also follow a similar trend. The cord diameter, as well the umbilical vein and artery diameters, are easy to measure [Figure 22] and we have our own nomograms for these too (unpublished data). However, the cord area and Wharton's jelly area in our population are much lower than that reported by Weissman. The probable cause for this disparity is that the women in our groups were undernourished.

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus