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Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A transverse section of the cord (arrow) is the best to show the number of vessels
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Figure 0018: A transverse section of the cord (arrow) is the best to show the number of vessels

Mentions: The umbilical cord is formed in the early period of embryogenesis from the body stalk (umbilical arteries) vein and the allantois and the yolk stalk (omphalomesenteric stalk and the remnant of the original yolk sac attachment). The cord is first visualized at around the 8th week, when its length is approximately equal to the crown–rump length (CRL). At this stage, the cord is a rather thick structure. The growth of the cord continues till about 36 weeks, though most of the growth is complete by 28 weeks. Wharton's jelly acts like a cushion around the cord. Its elasticity and the cushion-like effect protect the cord from bending, vibrations, and stretching by an active fetus. The cord has two arteries and one vein [Figures 17 and 18]; their relationship can vary and various normal structural patterns are observed. The total cord area and the Wharton's jelly area both decrease at near term. The average length of the cord at term is 61 cm. Cords less than 32 cm are termed short cords. The cord is shorter in twins than in singletons. Pulsations of the cord occur at the same rate as the fetal heart rate and may be appreciable during real-time USG evaluation. The placental insertion of the cord may be central or eccentric. An exaggerated form of eccentric placental insertion is the battledore placenta, where the insertion is at the margin of the placenta; however, this has no clinical significance.[32]


Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

A transverse section of the cord (arrow) is the best to show the number of vessels
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2747450&req=5

Figure 0018: A transverse section of the cord (arrow) is the best to show the number of vessels
Mentions: The umbilical cord is formed in the early period of embryogenesis from the body stalk (umbilical arteries) vein and the allantois and the yolk stalk (omphalomesenteric stalk and the remnant of the original yolk sac attachment). The cord is first visualized at around the 8th week, when its length is approximately equal to the crown–rump length (CRL). At this stage, the cord is a rather thick structure. The growth of the cord continues till about 36 weeks, though most of the growth is complete by 28 weeks. Wharton's jelly acts like a cushion around the cord. Its elasticity and the cushion-like effect protect the cord from bending, vibrations, and stretching by an active fetus. The cord has two arteries and one vein [Figures 17 and 18]; their relationship can vary and various normal structural patterns are observed. The total cord area and the Wharton's jelly area both decrease at near term. The average length of the cord at term is 61 cm. Cords less than 32 cm are termed short cords. The cord is shorter in twins than in singletons. Pulsations of the cord occur at the same rate as the fetal heart rate and may be appreciable during real-time USG evaluation. The placental insertion of the cord may be central or eccentric. An exaggerated form of eccentric placental insertion is the battledore placenta, where the insertion is at the margin of the placenta; however, this has no clinical significance.[32]

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus