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Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Posterior placenta. The echodense foci (arrows in A) in this case of pregnancy-induced hypertension with IUGR were considered to be likely infarcts, better defined on the chroma image (arrows in B)
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Figure 0015: (A) Posterior placenta. The echodense foci (arrows in A) in this case of pregnancy-induced hypertension with IUGR were considered to be likely infarcts, better defined on the chroma image (arrows in B)

Mentions: Placental infarction is predominantly a histopathological diagnosis. Placental infarcts are only infrequently found on USG. However, with high-resolution equipment one can predict its presence by demonstrating ill-defined hyperechoic areas in the placenta [Figure 15]. The presence of IUGR, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and post-term pregnancy increases the likelihood of infarcts. Small infarcts are often encountered in normal pregnancies but they do not have any adverse effect. Very often the interpretation of infarction is subjective. Fibrin deposition in the placenta is not a true infarct and usually is of no clinical importance [Figure 16]. The role of Doppler in cases of infarcts is questionable. However, demonstration of intraplacental vasculature can be of interest. Reports in the literature suggest that fetal distress can be predicted when the intraplacental vasculature is not detectable on color Doppler.[31]


Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

(A) Posterior placenta. The echodense foci (arrows in A) in this case of pregnancy-induced hypertension with IUGR were considered to be likely infarcts, better defined on the chroma image (arrows in B)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2747450&req=5

Figure 0015: (A) Posterior placenta. The echodense foci (arrows in A) in this case of pregnancy-induced hypertension with IUGR were considered to be likely infarcts, better defined on the chroma image (arrows in B)
Mentions: Placental infarction is predominantly a histopathological diagnosis. Placental infarcts are only infrequently found on USG. However, with high-resolution equipment one can predict its presence by demonstrating ill-defined hyperechoic areas in the placenta [Figure 15]. The presence of IUGR, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and post-term pregnancy increases the likelihood of infarcts. Small infarcts are often encountered in normal pregnancies but they do not have any adverse effect. Very often the interpretation of infarction is subjective. Fibrin deposition in the placenta is not a true infarct and usually is of no clinical importance [Figure 16]. The role of Doppler in cases of infarcts is questionable. However, demonstration of intraplacental vasculature can be of interest. Reports in the literature suggest that fetal distress can be predicted when the intraplacental vasculature is not detectable on color Doppler.[31]

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus