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Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anterior placenta previa. The placenta (arrow) has covered the internal os completely (arrowhead)
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Figure 0009: Anterior placenta previa. The placenta (arrow) has covered the internal os completely (arrowhead)

Mentions: A placenta previa is a placenta that is in front of or ‘previous’ to the birth canal; it remains the primary cause of third trimester bleeding. The incidence of placenta previa is more in multiparous women with a history of Cesarean section. Broadly, two types of previa are recorded: complete and incomplete. In the former, the os is completely covered by the placenta [Figure 9], whereas in the latter the placenta either partially covers or just reaches up to the os. A low-lying placenta is one whose edge is within 2 cm of the os. These low-lying placentae usually migrate. Placental migration is a loose term as the placenta does not itself move; instead, as the uterus expands, the placenta appears to migrate. Low-lying or incomplete placenta previas are common in the second trimester but only a minority persist into the late third trimester. Translabial and transvaginal USG are eminently useful for the detection of placenta previa. Translabial USG has a greater advantage in a posteriorly located placenta. Posteriorly implanted placentae are less likely to migrate as compared to anterior placentae.[23] A large clot from abruption may simulate placenta previa and color mapping can play an important role in differentiating between the two conditions. It is mandatory to have an empty bladder before performing a scan for suspected placenta previa. Safety issues should not preclude the use of the transvaginal route for the diagnosis of previa as the procedure is very safe.[24]


Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Anterior placenta previa. The placenta (arrow) has covered the internal os completely (arrowhead)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2747450&req=5

Figure 0009: Anterior placenta previa. The placenta (arrow) has covered the internal os completely (arrowhead)
Mentions: A placenta previa is a placenta that is in front of or ‘previous’ to the birth canal; it remains the primary cause of third trimester bleeding. The incidence of placenta previa is more in multiparous women with a history of Cesarean section. Broadly, two types of previa are recorded: complete and incomplete. In the former, the os is completely covered by the placenta [Figure 9], whereas in the latter the placenta either partially covers or just reaches up to the os. A low-lying placenta is one whose edge is within 2 cm of the os. These low-lying placentae usually migrate. Placental migration is a loose term as the placenta does not itself move; instead, as the uterus expands, the placenta appears to migrate. Low-lying or incomplete placenta previas are common in the second trimester but only a minority persist into the late third trimester. Translabial and transvaginal USG are eminently useful for the detection of placenta previa. Translabial USG has a greater advantage in a posteriorly located placenta. Posteriorly implanted placentae are less likely to migrate as compared to anterior placentae.[23] A large clot from abruption may simulate placenta previa and color mapping can play an important role in differentiating between the two conditions. It is mandatory to have an empty bladder before performing a scan for suspected placenta previa. Safety issues should not preclude the use of the transvaginal route for the diagnosis of previa as the procedure is very safe.[24]

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus