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Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Placental abruption in two different patients. Sagittal section (A) shows an echogenic bleed (CLOT) close to the fetal surface of the placenta in this case of abruption. The bleed is relatively fresh. (B) Another case of acute placental abruption, in which USG shows a few small hypoechoic areas of bleed (Bleed) in the retroplacental bed
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Figure 0008: Placental abruption in two different patients. Sagittal section (A) shows an echogenic bleed (CLOT) close to the fetal surface of the placenta in this case of abruption. The bleed is relatively fresh. (B) Another case of acute placental abruption, in which USG shows a few small hypoechoic areas of bleed (Bleed) in the retroplacental bed

Mentions: It is not uncommon to have a normal USG picture in the presence of a frank abruption. Positive USG features of abruption include a bulky or an enlarged, globular placenta[21] and the presence of a retroplacental or retromembranous clot [Figures 7 and 8]. Follow-up is done with the aim of monitoring the clot size and the USG features of the clot. An organized clot is more echogenic. As time passes, the clots become echo-free. Hematomas can exist at different locations. Subchorionic hematomas are more common prior to 20 weeks, whereas after 20 weeks, retroplacental hematomas are encountered more often. Preplacental hematomas are the least common.[22] Abruptions can be confused with myometrial contraction and myomas.


Fetal environment.

Kinare A - Indian J Radiol Imaging (2008)

Placental abruption in two different patients. Sagittal section (A) shows an echogenic bleed (CLOT) close to the fetal surface of the placenta in this case of abruption. The bleed is relatively fresh. (B) Another case of acute placental abruption, in which USG shows a few small hypoechoic areas of bleed (Bleed) in the retroplacental bed
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2747450&req=5

Figure 0008: Placental abruption in two different patients. Sagittal section (A) shows an echogenic bleed (CLOT) close to the fetal surface of the placenta in this case of abruption. The bleed is relatively fresh. (B) Another case of acute placental abruption, in which USG shows a few small hypoechoic areas of bleed (Bleed) in the retroplacental bed
Mentions: It is not uncommon to have a normal USG picture in the presence of a frank abruption. Positive USG features of abruption include a bulky or an enlarged, globular placenta[21] and the presence of a retroplacental or retromembranous clot [Figures 7 and 8]. Follow-up is done with the aim of monitoring the clot size and the USG features of the clot. An organized clot is more echogenic. As time passes, the clots become echo-free. Hematomas can exist at different locations. Subchorionic hematomas are more common prior to 20 weeks, whereas after 20 weeks, retroplacental hematomas are encountered more often. Preplacental hematomas are the least common.[22] Abruptions can be confused with myometrial contraction and myomas.

Bottom Line: These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby.Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations.USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ultrasound, K.E.M. Hospital, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus