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Efferent projections of prokineticin 2 expressing neurons in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus.

Zhang C, Truong KK, Zhou QY - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is one of the candidate output molecules from the SCN.Our data revealed that EGFP-expressing neurons in the SCN, hence representing some of the PK2-expressing neurons, projected to many known SCN target areas, including the ventral lateral septum, medial preoptic area, subparaventricular zone, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area and paraventricular thalamic nucleus.The efferent projections of PK2-expressing neurons supported the role of PK2 as an output molecule of the SCN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus is the predominant circadian clock in mammals. To function as a pacemaker, the intrinsic timing signal from the SCN must be transmitted to different brain regions. Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is one of the candidate output molecules from the SCN. In this study, we investigated the efferent projections of PK2-expressing neurons in the SCN through a transgenic reporter approach. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse line, in which the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter gene expression was driven by the PK2 promoter, we were able to obtain an efferent projections map from the EGFP-expressing neurons in the SCN. Our data revealed that EGFP-expressing neurons in the SCN, hence representing some of the PK2-expressing neurons, projected to many known SCN target areas, including the ventral lateral septum, medial preoptic area, subparaventricular zone, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area and paraventricular thalamic nucleus. The efferent projections of PK2-expressing neurons supported the role of PK2 as an output molecule of the SCN.

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Trajectory of EGFP-immunostained fibers in the hypothalamus, thalamus and midbrain.In a parasagittal plane close to the midline, cells with strong EGFP-ir signals could be seen in the septohippocampal nucleus (SHi), anterodorsal preoptic nucleus (ADP), medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Strong EGFP-ir fibers could be seen in the ventromedial preoptic nucleus (VMPO), the preoptic area, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), arcuate nucleus (Arc), medial supramammillary nucleus (SuMM), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). The animals were sacrificed at ZT12. Arrows indicated the EGFP-ir fibers coursed into the dorsal raphe nucleus. Scale bar  =  500 µm.
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pone-0007151-g003: Trajectory of EGFP-immunostained fibers in the hypothalamus, thalamus and midbrain.In a parasagittal plane close to the midline, cells with strong EGFP-ir signals could be seen in the septohippocampal nucleus (SHi), anterodorsal preoptic nucleus (ADP), medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Strong EGFP-ir fibers could be seen in the ventromedial preoptic nucleus (VMPO), the preoptic area, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), arcuate nucleus (Arc), medial supramammillary nucleus (SuMM), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). The animals were sacrificed at ZT12. Arrows indicated the EGFP-ir fibers coursed into the dorsal raphe nucleus. Scale bar  =  500 µm.

Mentions: Extensive EGFP-ir fibers were observed in most known SCN target areas in the septum, preoptic area, hypothalamus, thalamus and midbrain of the adult transgenic mouse brain (Figure 2 and Table 1). Dense EGFP-ir fibers could be seen coursing through the median preoptic area (MnPO), with many of them continued dorsally into the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM) and the ventral lateral septum (LSV) (Figure 2E and 2I). In the hypothalamus, the densest plexus of EGFP-ir fibers from the SCN began just dorsal and caudal to the nucleus, then vertically projected into the ipsilateral subparaventricular zone (SPa) and continued dorsally to a region ventral to the magnocellular part of the posterior paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN, Figure 2F). Inside the caudal part of SCN, a handful of EGFP-ir fibers could be seen crossing into the contralateral nucleus (Figure 2L). Posterior to the PVN, the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) and lateral hypothalamic area (LH) received vast innervations of the EGFP-ir fibers. In contrast, there were few EGFP-ir fibers in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (Figure 2G). A few EGFP-ir fibers were also observed in the Arc, posterior hypothalamic area (PH), lateral and medial supramammillary nucleus (SuMM, Figure 2J). In the thalamus, substantial EGFP-ir fibers could be seen extending dorsally and innervating the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) (Figure 2H). In the midbrain, intensive EGFP-ir fibers were observed throughout the length of the periaqueductal gray (PAG, Figure 2K), many of which probably extended into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR, see Figure 3 and below for details).


Efferent projections of prokineticin 2 expressing neurons in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus.

Zhang C, Truong KK, Zhou QY - PLoS ONE (2009)

Trajectory of EGFP-immunostained fibers in the hypothalamus, thalamus and midbrain.In a parasagittal plane close to the midline, cells with strong EGFP-ir signals could be seen in the septohippocampal nucleus (SHi), anterodorsal preoptic nucleus (ADP), medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Strong EGFP-ir fibers could be seen in the ventromedial preoptic nucleus (VMPO), the preoptic area, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), arcuate nucleus (Arc), medial supramammillary nucleus (SuMM), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). The animals were sacrificed at ZT12. Arrows indicated the EGFP-ir fibers coursed into the dorsal raphe nucleus. Scale bar  =  500 µm.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2747004&req=5

pone-0007151-g003: Trajectory of EGFP-immunostained fibers in the hypothalamus, thalamus and midbrain.In a parasagittal plane close to the midline, cells with strong EGFP-ir signals could be seen in the septohippocampal nucleus (SHi), anterodorsal preoptic nucleus (ADP), medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Strong EGFP-ir fibers could be seen in the ventromedial preoptic nucleus (VMPO), the preoptic area, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), arcuate nucleus (Arc), medial supramammillary nucleus (SuMM), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). The animals were sacrificed at ZT12. Arrows indicated the EGFP-ir fibers coursed into the dorsal raphe nucleus. Scale bar  =  500 µm.
Mentions: Extensive EGFP-ir fibers were observed in most known SCN target areas in the septum, preoptic area, hypothalamus, thalamus and midbrain of the adult transgenic mouse brain (Figure 2 and Table 1). Dense EGFP-ir fibers could be seen coursing through the median preoptic area (MnPO), with many of them continued dorsally into the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM) and the ventral lateral septum (LSV) (Figure 2E and 2I). In the hypothalamus, the densest plexus of EGFP-ir fibers from the SCN began just dorsal and caudal to the nucleus, then vertically projected into the ipsilateral subparaventricular zone (SPa) and continued dorsally to a region ventral to the magnocellular part of the posterior paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN, Figure 2F). Inside the caudal part of SCN, a handful of EGFP-ir fibers could be seen crossing into the contralateral nucleus (Figure 2L). Posterior to the PVN, the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) and lateral hypothalamic area (LH) received vast innervations of the EGFP-ir fibers. In contrast, there were few EGFP-ir fibers in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (Figure 2G). A few EGFP-ir fibers were also observed in the Arc, posterior hypothalamic area (PH), lateral and medial supramammillary nucleus (SuMM, Figure 2J). In the thalamus, substantial EGFP-ir fibers could be seen extending dorsally and innervating the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) (Figure 2H). In the midbrain, intensive EGFP-ir fibers were observed throughout the length of the periaqueductal gray (PAG, Figure 2K), many of which probably extended into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR, see Figure 3 and below for details).

Bottom Line: Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is one of the candidate output molecules from the SCN.Our data revealed that EGFP-expressing neurons in the SCN, hence representing some of the PK2-expressing neurons, projected to many known SCN target areas, including the ventral lateral septum, medial preoptic area, subparaventricular zone, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area and paraventricular thalamic nucleus.The efferent projections of PK2-expressing neurons supported the role of PK2 as an output molecule of the SCN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus is the predominant circadian clock in mammals. To function as a pacemaker, the intrinsic timing signal from the SCN must be transmitted to different brain regions. Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is one of the candidate output molecules from the SCN. In this study, we investigated the efferent projections of PK2-expressing neurons in the SCN through a transgenic reporter approach. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse line, in which the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter gene expression was driven by the PK2 promoter, we were able to obtain an efferent projections map from the EGFP-expressing neurons in the SCN. Our data revealed that EGFP-expressing neurons in the SCN, hence representing some of the PK2-expressing neurons, projected to many known SCN target areas, including the ventral lateral septum, medial preoptic area, subparaventricular zone, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area and paraventricular thalamic nucleus. The efferent projections of PK2-expressing neurons supported the role of PK2 as an output molecule of the SCN.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus