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Sensitivity of Andes hantavirus to antiviral effect of human saliva.

Hardestam J, Lundkvist A, Klingström J - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

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Hantaviruses cause 2 severe and often fatal human diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas... Rodents are the natural hosts for hantaviruses that cause HFRS and HCPS, and humans are usually infected by aerosolized virus-contaminated rodent excreta... Except for Andes virus (ANDV), human-to-human transmission of hantaviruses does not seem to occur... This finding suggests that PUUV, and perhaps other hantaviruses, might be secreted into human saliva... However, we found no evidence of replicating virus in the saliva samples ; neutralizing antibodies or salivary components may have inactivated the virus... We therefore analyzed the effect of saliva on the prototype hantavirus, Hantaan virus (HTNV)... We tested the hypotheses that ANDV might be less sensitive than HTNV and PUUV to the antiviral effect of human saliva... Because of a cytopathic effect on the cells, we could not test saliva concentrations >50%... After incubation, titers in samples incubated with saliva were calculated and compared with titers from virus incubated without saliva... The different hantaviruses clearly differed in their sensitivities to human saliva... At a low concentration (12.5% saliva), we observed a slight effect on HTNV, even though we saw no effect on ANDV and PUUV... Our finding that ANDV is less sensitive than HTNV and PUUV to the antiviral effect of human saliva might explain why ANDV, but not HTNV or PUUV, is transmitted between humans... Replicating hantaviruses have not been isolated from saliva of patients with HFRS or HCPS.

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Antiviral effect of human saliva against Hantaan virus (HTNV), Andes virus (ANDV), and Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Data represent mean + SD of 3 independent experiments.
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Figure 1: Antiviral effect of human saliva against Hantaan virus (HTNV), Andes virus (ANDV), and Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Data represent mean + SD of 3 independent experiments.

Mentions: The different hantaviruses clearly differed in their sensitivities to human saliva. At a low concentration (12.5% saliva), we observed a slight effect on HTNV, even though we saw no effect on ANDV and PUUV. ANDV was the only virus that resisted higher concentrations of saliva (25% and 50%), and an antiviral effect was clearly observed on HTNV and PUUV at these saliva concentrations (Figure).


Sensitivity of Andes hantavirus to antiviral effect of human saliva.

Hardestam J, Lundkvist A, Klingström J - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Antiviral effect of human saliva against Hantaan virus (HTNV), Andes virus (ANDV), and Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Data represent mean + SD of 3 independent experiments.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2744264&req=5

Figure 1: Antiviral effect of human saliva against Hantaan virus (HTNV), Andes virus (ANDV), and Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Data represent mean + SD of 3 independent experiments.
Mentions: The different hantaviruses clearly differed in their sensitivities to human saliva. At a low concentration (12.5% saliva), we observed a slight effect on HTNV, even though we saw no effect on ANDV and PUUV. ANDV was the only virus that resisted higher concentrations of saliva (25% and 50%), and an antiviral effect was clearly observed on HTNV and PUUV at these saliva concentrations (Figure).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Hantaviruses cause 2 severe and often fatal human diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas... Rodents are the natural hosts for hantaviruses that cause HFRS and HCPS, and humans are usually infected by aerosolized virus-contaminated rodent excreta... Except for Andes virus (ANDV), human-to-human transmission of hantaviruses does not seem to occur... This finding suggests that PUUV, and perhaps other hantaviruses, might be secreted into human saliva... However, we found no evidence of replicating virus in the saliva samples ; neutralizing antibodies or salivary components may have inactivated the virus... We therefore analyzed the effect of saliva on the prototype hantavirus, Hantaan virus (HTNV)... We tested the hypotheses that ANDV might be less sensitive than HTNV and PUUV to the antiviral effect of human saliva... Because of a cytopathic effect on the cells, we could not test saliva concentrations >50%... After incubation, titers in samples incubated with saliva were calculated and compared with titers from virus incubated without saliva... The different hantaviruses clearly differed in their sensitivities to human saliva... At a low concentration (12.5% saliva), we observed a slight effect on HTNV, even though we saw no effect on ANDV and PUUV... Our finding that ANDV is less sensitive than HTNV and PUUV to the antiviral effect of human saliva might explain why ANDV, but not HTNV or PUUV, is transmitted between humans... Replicating hantaviruses have not been isolated from saliva of patients with HFRS or HCPS.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus