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Segregated fronto-cerebellar circuits revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity.

Krienen FM, Buckner RL - Cereb. Cortex (2009)

Bottom Line: The presence of circuits that involve prefrontal regions confirms that the cerebellum participates in networks important to cognition including a specific fronto-cerebellar circuit that interacts with the default network.Overall, the extent of the cerebellum associated with prefrontal cortex included a large portion of the posterior hemispheres consistent with a prominent role of the cerebellum in nonmotor functions.We conclude by providing a provisional map of the topography of the cerebellum based on functional correlations with the frontal cortex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. krienen@wjh.harvard.edu

ABSTRACT
Multiple, segregated fronto-cerebellar circuits have been characterized in nonhuman primates using transneuronal tracing techniques including those that target prefrontal areas. Here, we used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in humans (n = 40) to identify 4 topographically distinct fronto-cerebellar circuits that target 1) motor cortex, 2) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, 3) medial prefrontal cortex, and 4) anterior prefrontal cortex. All 4 circuits were replicated and dissociated in an independent data set (n = 40). Direct comparison of right- and left-seeded frontal regions revealed contralateral lateralization in the cerebellum for each of the segregated circuits. The presence of circuits that involve prefrontal regions confirms that the cerebellum participates in networks important to cognition including a specific fronto-cerebellar circuit that interacts with the default network. Overall, the extent of the cerebellum associated with prefrontal cortex included a large portion of the posterior hemispheres consistent with a prominent role of the cerebellum in nonmotor functions. We conclude by providing a provisional map of the topography of the cerebellum based on functional correlations with the frontal cortex.

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Cerebellar regions are not correlated with primary visual and auditory cortices. Although seeding striate cortex (VIS) and Heschl's gyrus (AUD) produces robust correlations in the cerebral cortex, no connectivity appears to be present in the cerebellum. Correlations with each of the 4 cerebral regions are displayed in successive coronal slices of the cerebellum. Maps are thresholded at z(r) > 0.1. MOT and DLPFC correlations are shown for comparison purposes. The location of the seed regions corresponds to the highest intensity values (white/yellow patches) in the first panel of each column. Numbers correspond to the y coordinate of each coronal slice.
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fig6: Cerebellar regions are not correlated with primary visual and auditory cortices. Although seeding striate cortex (VIS) and Heschl's gyrus (AUD) produces robust correlations in the cerebral cortex, no connectivity appears to be present in the cerebellum. Correlations with each of the 4 cerebral regions are displayed in successive coronal slices of the cerebellum. Maps are thresholded at z(r) > 0.1. MOT and DLPFC correlations are shown for comparison purposes. The location of the seed regions corresponds to the highest intensity values (white/yellow patches) in the first panel of each column. Numbers correspond to the y coordinate of each coronal slice.

Mentions: All of the frontal sites tested resulted in robust functional correlation with different parts of the cerebellum. However, in order to interpret these differences it is equally important to demonstrate that cerebellar correlations are also selective. To this end, we seeded regions in or near primary auditory (Heschl's gyrus) and primary visual cortex, both of which do not appear to project to the cerebellar hemispheres (Huffman and Henson 1990; Schmahmann and Pandya 1993). The results of these analyses are displayed in Figure 6, which also includes correlation maps produced from MOT and DLPFC for comparison purposes. In keeping with expectations, although the auditory and visual seeds produced robust cortical correlations, they failed to correlate with activity in the cerebellar hemispheres.


Segregated fronto-cerebellar circuits revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity.

Krienen FM, Buckner RL - Cereb. Cortex (2009)

Cerebellar regions are not correlated with primary visual and auditory cortices. Although seeding striate cortex (VIS) and Heschl's gyrus (AUD) produces robust correlations in the cerebral cortex, no connectivity appears to be present in the cerebellum. Correlations with each of the 4 cerebral regions are displayed in successive coronal slices of the cerebellum. Maps are thresholded at z(r) > 0.1. MOT and DLPFC correlations are shown for comparison purposes. The location of the seed regions corresponds to the highest intensity values (white/yellow patches) in the first panel of each column. Numbers correspond to the y coordinate of each coronal slice.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2742600&req=5

fig6: Cerebellar regions are not correlated with primary visual and auditory cortices. Although seeding striate cortex (VIS) and Heschl's gyrus (AUD) produces robust correlations in the cerebral cortex, no connectivity appears to be present in the cerebellum. Correlations with each of the 4 cerebral regions are displayed in successive coronal slices of the cerebellum. Maps are thresholded at z(r) > 0.1. MOT and DLPFC correlations are shown for comparison purposes. The location of the seed regions corresponds to the highest intensity values (white/yellow patches) in the first panel of each column. Numbers correspond to the y coordinate of each coronal slice.
Mentions: All of the frontal sites tested resulted in robust functional correlation with different parts of the cerebellum. However, in order to interpret these differences it is equally important to demonstrate that cerebellar correlations are also selective. To this end, we seeded regions in or near primary auditory (Heschl's gyrus) and primary visual cortex, both of which do not appear to project to the cerebellar hemispheres (Huffman and Henson 1990; Schmahmann and Pandya 1993). The results of these analyses are displayed in Figure 6, which also includes correlation maps produced from MOT and DLPFC for comparison purposes. In keeping with expectations, although the auditory and visual seeds produced robust cortical correlations, they failed to correlate with activity in the cerebellar hemispheres.

Bottom Line: The presence of circuits that involve prefrontal regions confirms that the cerebellum participates in networks important to cognition including a specific fronto-cerebellar circuit that interacts with the default network.Overall, the extent of the cerebellum associated with prefrontal cortex included a large portion of the posterior hemispheres consistent with a prominent role of the cerebellum in nonmotor functions.We conclude by providing a provisional map of the topography of the cerebellum based on functional correlations with the frontal cortex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. krienen@wjh.harvard.edu

ABSTRACT
Multiple, segregated fronto-cerebellar circuits have been characterized in nonhuman primates using transneuronal tracing techniques including those that target prefrontal areas. Here, we used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in humans (n = 40) to identify 4 topographically distinct fronto-cerebellar circuits that target 1) motor cortex, 2) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, 3) medial prefrontal cortex, and 4) anterior prefrontal cortex. All 4 circuits were replicated and dissociated in an independent data set (n = 40). Direct comparison of right- and left-seeded frontal regions revealed contralateral lateralization in the cerebellum for each of the segregated circuits. The presence of circuits that involve prefrontal regions confirms that the cerebellum participates in networks important to cognition including a specific fronto-cerebellar circuit that interacts with the default network. Overall, the extent of the cerebellum associated with prefrontal cortex included a large portion of the posterior hemispheres consistent with a prominent role of the cerebellum in nonmotor functions. We conclude by providing a provisional map of the topography of the cerebellum based on functional correlations with the frontal cortex.

Show MeSH