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"Opening" the mesenchymal stem cell tool box.

Zeidán-Chuliá F, Noda M - Eur J Dent (2009)

Bottom Line: MSCs can be obtained from distinct tissue sources and have turned out to be successfully manipulated in vitro.On the other hand, new strategies to achieve long-term integration as well as efficient differentiation of these cells at the area of the lesion are still challenging, and the signalling pathways ruling these processes are not completely well characterized.Highlights and pitfalls for further clinical applications will be discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Biochemistry and Developmental Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.

ABSTRACT
Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adherent stromal cells able to self-renew and differentiate into a wide variety of cells and tissues. MSCs can be obtained from distinct tissue sources and have turned out to be successfully manipulated in vitro. As adult stem cells, MSCs are less tumorigenic than their embryonic correlatives and posses another unique characteristic which is their almost immunogenicity. Moreover, these cells seem to be immunosuppressive in vitro. These facts together with others became MSCs a promising subject of study for future approaches in bioengineering and cell-based therapy. On the other hand, new strategies to achieve long-term integration as well as efficient differentiation of these cells at the area of the lesion are still challenging, and the signalling pathways ruling these processes are not completely well characterized. In this review, we are going summarize the general landscape and current status of the MSC tool as well as their wide potential in tissue engineering, from neuronal to tooth replacement. Highlights and pitfalls for further clinical applications will be discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The human dental pulp contains a population of putative post-natal stem cells or dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) with multipotential capabilities. After severe injury, the dental pulp stem cell niche may play a critical role in reparative dentine formation of the tooth.
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f3-0030240: The human dental pulp contains a population of putative post-natal stem cells or dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) with multipotential capabilities. After severe injury, the dental pulp stem cell niche may play a critical role in reparative dentine formation of the tooth.

Mentions: After injury, the dental pulp (Figure 3) plays a major role in tooth regeneration by participating in a process called reparative dentinogenesis, where cells create and accumulate new dentin matrix to repair the damaged area.28 Bigger traumas or advanced caries, for instance, can eventually cause the death of the pre-existing population of odontoblast.29 As consequence, new odontoblasts are recruited in order to differentiate at the injured area and to form reparative dentine, also known as osteodentine. This early mineralized tissue preserves the pulp integrity and serves as protective barrier upon the injury.30 Then, one can speculate that dentinogenic progenitors may be located in that area of the dental pulp and in fact, some studies have already showed the existence of a population of putative post-natal stem cells or dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) which may play a relevant role in reparative dentine formation.31 DPSCs can be considered as a heterogeneous population of MSCs since the dental pulp is composed from both mesenchymal and ectodermic components. Probably, they may be located in the perivascular area of the pulp as expression of characteristic markers suggest. For instance, VCAM-1 and α-smooth-muscle actin are positively expressed in these cells.32 Despite of the multipotential capabilities of these cells and even though their primary commitment seem to be the production of mineralized tissue,33 DPSCs have been shown to be able to generate functionally active neurons under determined environmental conditions.25 This neuronal differentiation potential together with their accessibility makes DPSCs a good candidate of study for future cell-based therapy in spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative diseases.


"Opening" the mesenchymal stem cell tool box.

Zeidán-Chuliá F, Noda M - Eur J Dent (2009)

The human dental pulp contains a population of putative post-natal stem cells or dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) with multipotential capabilities. After severe injury, the dental pulp stem cell niche may play a critical role in reparative dentine formation of the tooth.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2741198&req=5

f3-0030240: The human dental pulp contains a population of putative post-natal stem cells or dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) with multipotential capabilities. After severe injury, the dental pulp stem cell niche may play a critical role in reparative dentine formation of the tooth.
Mentions: After injury, the dental pulp (Figure 3) plays a major role in tooth regeneration by participating in a process called reparative dentinogenesis, where cells create and accumulate new dentin matrix to repair the damaged area.28 Bigger traumas or advanced caries, for instance, can eventually cause the death of the pre-existing population of odontoblast.29 As consequence, new odontoblasts are recruited in order to differentiate at the injured area and to form reparative dentine, also known as osteodentine. This early mineralized tissue preserves the pulp integrity and serves as protective barrier upon the injury.30 Then, one can speculate that dentinogenic progenitors may be located in that area of the dental pulp and in fact, some studies have already showed the existence of a population of putative post-natal stem cells or dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) which may play a relevant role in reparative dentine formation.31 DPSCs can be considered as a heterogeneous population of MSCs since the dental pulp is composed from both mesenchymal and ectodermic components. Probably, they may be located in the perivascular area of the pulp as expression of characteristic markers suggest. For instance, VCAM-1 and α-smooth-muscle actin are positively expressed in these cells.32 Despite of the multipotential capabilities of these cells and even though their primary commitment seem to be the production of mineralized tissue,33 DPSCs have been shown to be able to generate functionally active neurons under determined environmental conditions.25 This neuronal differentiation potential together with their accessibility makes DPSCs a good candidate of study for future cell-based therapy in spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

Bottom Line: MSCs can be obtained from distinct tissue sources and have turned out to be successfully manipulated in vitro.On the other hand, new strategies to achieve long-term integration as well as efficient differentiation of these cells at the area of the lesion are still challenging, and the signalling pathways ruling these processes are not completely well characterized.Highlights and pitfalls for further clinical applications will be discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Biochemistry and Developmental Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.

ABSTRACT
Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adherent stromal cells able to self-renew and differentiate into a wide variety of cells and tissues. MSCs can be obtained from distinct tissue sources and have turned out to be successfully manipulated in vitro. As adult stem cells, MSCs are less tumorigenic than their embryonic correlatives and posses another unique characteristic which is their almost immunogenicity. Moreover, these cells seem to be immunosuppressive in vitro. These facts together with others became MSCs a promising subject of study for future approaches in bioengineering and cell-based therapy. On the other hand, new strategies to achieve long-term integration as well as efficient differentiation of these cells at the area of the lesion are still challenging, and the signalling pathways ruling these processes are not completely well characterized. In this review, we are going summarize the general landscape and current status of the MSC tool as well as their wide potential in tissue engineering, from neuronal to tooth replacement. Highlights and pitfalls for further clinical applications will be discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus