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Serum polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels are higher in children (2-5 years of age) than in infants and adults.

Toms LM, Sjödin A, Harden F, Hobson P, Jones R, Edenfield E, Mueller JF - Environ. Health Perspect. (2009)

Bottom Line: The sum of BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 concentrations ( summation operator(4)PBDE) increased from 0-0.5 years (mean +/- SD, 14 +/- 3.4 ng/g lipid) to peak at 2.6-3 years (51 +/- 36 ng/g lipid; p < 0.001) and then decreased until 31-45 years (9.9 +/- 1.6 ng/g lipid).We observed no further significant decrease among ages 31-45, 45-60 (p = 0.964), or > 60 years (p = 0.894).We found no temporal trend when we compared the present results with Australian PBDE data from 2002-2005.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108, Australia. l.toms@uq.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many products and have been detected in human samples worldwide. Limited data show that concentrations are elevated in young children.

Objectives: We investigated the association between PBDEs and age with an emphasis on young children from Australia in 2006-2007.

Methods: We collected human blood serum samples (n = 2,420), which we stratified by age and sex and pooled for analysis of PBDEs.

Results: The sum of BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 concentrations ( summation operator(4)PBDE) increased from 0-0.5 years (mean +/- SD, 14 +/- 3.4 ng/g lipid) to peak at 2.6-3 years (51 +/- 36 ng/g lipid; p < 0.001) and then decreased until 31-45 years (9.9 +/- 1.6 ng/g lipid). We observed no further significant decrease among ages 31-45, 45-60 (p = 0.964), or > 60 years (p = 0.894). The mean summation operator(4)PBDE concentration in cord blood (24 +/- 14 ng/g lipid) did not differ significantly from that in adult serum at ages 15-30 (p = 0.198) or 31-45 years (p = 0.140). We found no temporal trend when we compared the present results with Australian PBDE data from 2002-2005. PBDE concentrations were higher in males than in females; however, this difference reached statistical significance only for BDE-153 (p = 0.05).

Conclusions: The observed peak concentration at 2.6-3 years of age is later than the period when breast-feeding is typically ceased. This suggests that in addition to the exposure via human milk, young children have higher exposure to these chemicals and/or a lower capacity to eliminate them.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Contribution of BDE-47 and -153 (A) and BDE-99 and -100 (B) to the ∑4PBDE concentration by age (note difference of scale on y-axis).
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f2-ehp-117-1461: Contribution of BDE-47 and -153 (A) and BDE-99 and -100 (B) to the ∑4PBDE concentration by age (note difference of scale on y-axis).

Mentions: We found no observable differences in profile by sex, except for BDE-153, which made a greater contribution to the ∑4PBDE concentration in males than in females. The levels of congener contribution to the ∑4PBDE concentration changed with age (Figure 2). The contributions of BDE-47 and -99 decreased with age until around 8 years of age, whereas BDE-100 and -153 increased with age until 5 and 14 years of age, respectively. The half-life of BDE-47 is reportedly shorter than that of BDE-153 (1.8 vs. 6.5 years; Geyer et al. 2004), which may explain the differences in the congener contribution with age. In addition, higher brominated diphenyl ethers are reported to pass the placenta at lower rates compared with lower brominated diphenyl ethers (Bi et al. 2006; Meironyté Guvenius et al. 2003; Schecter et al. 2007), and this may explain why BDE-153 is found in lower concentrations in the younger age groups. Qiu et al. (2009) noted that BDE-99 was more likely to be hydroxylated than are BDE-47 and BDE-100 in humans, which may explain why concentrations of BDE-99 decrease from birth compared with BDE-47 and -100.


Serum polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels are higher in children (2-5 years of age) than in infants and adults.

Toms LM, Sjödin A, Harden F, Hobson P, Jones R, Edenfield E, Mueller JF - Environ. Health Perspect. (2009)

Contribution of BDE-47 and -153 (A) and BDE-99 and -100 (B) to the ∑4PBDE concentration by age (note difference of scale on y-axis).
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2737026&req=5

f2-ehp-117-1461: Contribution of BDE-47 and -153 (A) and BDE-99 and -100 (B) to the ∑4PBDE concentration by age (note difference of scale on y-axis).
Mentions: We found no observable differences in profile by sex, except for BDE-153, which made a greater contribution to the ∑4PBDE concentration in males than in females. The levels of congener contribution to the ∑4PBDE concentration changed with age (Figure 2). The contributions of BDE-47 and -99 decreased with age until around 8 years of age, whereas BDE-100 and -153 increased with age until 5 and 14 years of age, respectively. The half-life of BDE-47 is reportedly shorter than that of BDE-153 (1.8 vs. 6.5 years; Geyer et al. 2004), which may explain the differences in the congener contribution with age. In addition, higher brominated diphenyl ethers are reported to pass the placenta at lower rates compared with lower brominated diphenyl ethers (Bi et al. 2006; Meironyté Guvenius et al. 2003; Schecter et al. 2007), and this may explain why BDE-153 is found in lower concentrations in the younger age groups. Qiu et al. (2009) noted that BDE-99 was more likely to be hydroxylated than are BDE-47 and BDE-100 in humans, which may explain why concentrations of BDE-99 decrease from birth compared with BDE-47 and -100.

Bottom Line: The sum of BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 concentrations ( summation operator(4)PBDE) increased from 0-0.5 years (mean +/- SD, 14 +/- 3.4 ng/g lipid) to peak at 2.6-3 years (51 +/- 36 ng/g lipid; p < 0.001) and then decreased until 31-45 years (9.9 +/- 1.6 ng/g lipid).We observed no further significant decrease among ages 31-45, 45-60 (p = 0.964), or > 60 years (p = 0.894).We found no temporal trend when we compared the present results with Australian PBDE data from 2002-2005.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108, Australia. l.toms@uq.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many products and have been detected in human samples worldwide. Limited data show that concentrations are elevated in young children.

Objectives: We investigated the association between PBDEs and age with an emphasis on young children from Australia in 2006-2007.

Methods: We collected human blood serum samples (n = 2,420), which we stratified by age and sex and pooled for analysis of PBDEs.

Results: The sum of BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 concentrations ( summation operator(4)PBDE) increased from 0-0.5 years (mean +/- SD, 14 +/- 3.4 ng/g lipid) to peak at 2.6-3 years (51 +/- 36 ng/g lipid; p < 0.001) and then decreased until 31-45 years (9.9 +/- 1.6 ng/g lipid). We observed no further significant decrease among ages 31-45, 45-60 (p = 0.964), or > 60 years (p = 0.894). The mean summation operator(4)PBDE concentration in cord blood (24 +/- 14 ng/g lipid) did not differ significantly from that in adult serum at ages 15-30 (p = 0.198) or 31-45 years (p = 0.140). We found no temporal trend when we compared the present results with Australian PBDE data from 2002-2005. PBDE concentrations were higher in males than in females; however, this difference reached statistical significance only for BDE-153 (p = 0.05).

Conclusions: The observed peak concentration at 2.6-3 years of age is later than the period when breast-feeding is typically ceased. This suggests that in addition to the exposure via human milk, young children have higher exposure to these chemicals and/or a lower capacity to eliminate them.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus