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Serum polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels are higher in children (2-5 years of age) than in infants and adults.

Toms LM, Sjödin A, Harden F, Hobson P, Jones R, Edenfield E, Mueller JF - Environ. Health Perspect. (2009)

Bottom Line: The sum of BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 concentrations ( summation operator(4)PBDE) increased from 0-0.5 years (mean +/- SD, 14 +/- 3.4 ng/g lipid) to peak at 2.6-3 years (51 +/- 36 ng/g lipid; p < 0.001) and then decreased until 31-45 years (9.9 +/- 1.6 ng/g lipid).We observed no further significant decrease among ages 31-45, 45-60 (p = 0.964), or > 60 years (p = 0.894).We found no temporal trend when we compared the present results with Australian PBDE data from 2002-2005.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108, Australia. l.toms@uq.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many products and have been detected in human samples worldwide. Limited data show that concentrations are elevated in young children.

Objectives: We investigated the association between PBDEs and age with an emphasis on young children from Australia in 2006-2007.

Methods: We collected human blood serum samples (n = 2,420), which we stratified by age and sex and pooled for analysis of PBDEs.

Results: The sum of BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 concentrations ( summation operator(4)PBDE) increased from 0-0.5 years (mean +/- SD, 14 +/- 3.4 ng/g lipid) to peak at 2.6-3 years (51 +/- 36 ng/g lipid; p < 0.001) and then decreased until 31-45 years (9.9 +/- 1.6 ng/g lipid). We observed no further significant decrease among ages 31-45, 45-60 (p = 0.964), or > 60 years (p = 0.894). The mean summation operator(4)PBDE concentration in cord blood (24 +/- 14 ng/g lipid) did not differ significantly from that in adult serum at ages 15-30 (p = 0.198) or 31-45 years (p = 0.140). We found no temporal trend when we compared the present results with Australian PBDE data from 2002-2005. PBDE concentrations were higher in males than in females; however, this difference reached statistical significance only for BDE-153 (p = 0.05).

Conclusions: The observed peak concentration at 2.6-3 years of age is later than the period when breast-feeding is typically ceased. This suggests that in addition to the exposure via human milk, young children have higher exposure to these chemicals and/or a lower capacity to eliminate them.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

∑4PBDE concentrations (ng/g lipid) by mean age (0–80 years) and sex. Each point represents a pool of up to 30 individual blood samples.
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f1-ehp-117-1461: ∑4PBDE concentrations (ng/g lipid) by mean age (0–80 years) and sex. Each point represents a pool of up to 30 individual blood samples.

Mentions: For children, mean ∑4PBDE concentrations were highest in the 2- to 5-year age groups, with the maximum ∑4PBDE concentration (103 ng/g lipid) detected in a pool of serum from females 2.6–3 years of age (Figure 1). We summarized samples into broader age brackets and ran an ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test. The mean ∑4PBDE concentrations from cord blood samples and samples from ages 0–2, 6–12, and 13–30 years were similar to each other but were significantly different from concentrations detected in children in the 2- to 5-year age group (Table 1). We observed the lowest concentrations in the adults > 31 years of age, which were also significantly different from those in the 2- to 5-year age group. We detected the lowest ∑4PBDE concentration (5.5 ng/g lipid) in a pool from females > 60 years of age. ∑4PBDE concentrations in three pools of cord blood ranged from 14 to 40 ng/g lipid, with a mean of 24 ng/g lipid, similar to those in females 15–45 years of age, whose levels ranged from 8.1 to 77 ng/g lipid, with a mean of 27 ng/g lipid. The cord and female blood samples compared here were not fetus–mother pairs, and comparisons should be made with caution because both correlated (Bi et al. 2006; Mazdai et al. 2003) and noncorrelated (Gomara et al. 2007; Meironyté Guvenius et al. 2003) PBDE concentrations in paired cord–maternal blood have been reported.


Serum polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels are higher in children (2-5 years of age) than in infants and adults.

Toms LM, Sjödin A, Harden F, Hobson P, Jones R, Edenfield E, Mueller JF - Environ. Health Perspect. (2009)

∑4PBDE concentrations (ng/g lipid) by mean age (0–80 years) and sex. Each point represents a pool of up to 30 individual blood samples.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2737026&req=5

f1-ehp-117-1461: ∑4PBDE concentrations (ng/g lipid) by mean age (0–80 years) and sex. Each point represents a pool of up to 30 individual blood samples.
Mentions: For children, mean ∑4PBDE concentrations were highest in the 2- to 5-year age groups, with the maximum ∑4PBDE concentration (103 ng/g lipid) detected in a pool of serum from females 2.6–3 years of age (Figure 1). We summarized samples into broader age brackets and ran an ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test. The mean ∑4PBDE concentrations from cord blood samples and samples from ages 0–2, 6–12, and 13–30 years were similar to each other but were significantly different from concentrations detected in children in the 2- to 5-year age group (Table 1). We observed the lowest concentrations in the adults > 31 years of age, which were also significantly different from those in the 2- to 5-year age group. We detected the lowest ∑4PBDE concentration (5.5 ng/g lipid) in a pool from females > 60 years of age. ∑4PBDE concentrations in three pools of cord blood ranged from 14 to 40 ng/g lipid, with a mean of 24 ng/g lipid, similar to those in females 15–45 years of age, whose levels ranged from 8.1 to 77 ng/g lipid, with a mean of 27 ng/g lipid. The cord and female blood samples compared here were not fetus–mother pairs, and comparisons should be made with caution because both correlated (Bi et al. 2006; Mazdai et al. 2003) and noncorrelated (Gomara et al. 2007; Meironyté Guvenius et al. 2003) PBDE concentrations in paired cord–maternal blood have been reported.

Bottom Line: The sum of BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 concentrations ( summation operator(4)PBDE) increased from 0-0.5 years (mean +/- SD, 14 +/- 3.4 ng/g lipid) to peak at 2.6-3 years (51 +/- 36 ng/g lipid; p < 0.001) and then decreased until 31-45 years (9.9 +/- 1.6 ng/g lipid).We observed no further significant decrease among ages 31-45, 45-60 (p = 0.964), or > 60 years (p = 0.894).We found no temporal trend when we compared the present results with Australian PBDE data from 2002-2005.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108, Australia. l.toms@uq.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many products and have been detected in human samples worldwide. Limited data show that concentrations are elevated in young children.

Objectives: We investigated the association between PBDEs and age with an emphasis on young children from Australia in 2006-2007.

Methods: We collected human blood serum samples (n = 2,420), which we stratified by age and sex and pooled for analysis of PBDEs.

Results: The sum of BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 concentrations ( summation operator(4)PBDE) increased from 0-0.5 years (mean +/- SD, 14 +/- 3.4 ng/g lipid) to peak at 2.6-3 years (51 +/- 36 ng/g lipid; p < 0.001) and then decreased until 31-45 years (9.9 +/- 1.6 ng/g lipid). We observed no further significant decrease among ages 31-45, 45-60 (p = 0.964), or > 60 years (p = 0.894). The mean summation operator(4)PBDE concentration in cord blood (24 +/- 14 ng/g lipid) did not differ significantly from that in adult serum at ages 15-30 (p = 0.198) or 31-45 years (p = 0.140). We found no temporal trend when we compared the present results with Australian PBDE data from 2002-2005. PBDE concentrations were higher in males than in females; however, this difference reached statistical significance only for BDE-153 (p = 0.05).

Conclusions: The observed peak concentration at 2.6-3 years of age is later than the period when breast-feeding is typically ceased. This suggests that in addition to the exposure via human milk, young children have higher exposure to these chemicals and/or a lower capacity to eliminate them.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus