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The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit.

Ampomah-Dwamena C, McGhie T, Wibisono R, Montefiori M, Hellens RP, Allan AC - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Bottom Line: The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species.Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening.This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-beta gene.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Auckland, New Zealand. cdwamena@hortresearch.co.nz

ABSTRACT
The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes among different genotypes and fruit developmental stages identified Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-beta) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-beta), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-epsilon) showed some variation in gene expression. The LCY-beta gene was functionally tested in bacteria and shown to convert lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene respectively. This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-beta gene.

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The accumulation of carotenoids in Actinidia macrosperma ripe and stored fruit. Concentrations of β-carotene (A–C) and lutein (D–F) levels in fruit: error bars are standard errors of the mean from three independent measurements. Fruit were stored at 20 °C (A, D), 4 °C (B, E) or at 4 °C later transferred to 20 °C (C, F). Whole fruits (skin+pericarp) were sampled at mature green stage (T0) and thereafter at various intervals (T1, T2, T3) for the three comparable timepoints during the ripening stages. The T1, T2, T3 time points at 20 °C were 10, 15, and 27 d storage; at 4 °C were 20, 29, and 38 d. For the transfer of fruit between 4 °C and 20 °C, 20 d at 4 °C (T1) followed by 9 d (T2), 18 d (T3) at 20 °C, respectively.
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fig9: The accumulation of carotenoids in Actinidia macrosperma ripe and stored fruit. Concentrations of β-carotene (A–C) and lutein (D–F) levels in fruit: error bars are standard errors of the mean from three independent measurements. Fruit were stored at 20 °C (A, D), 4 °C (B, E) or at 4 °C later transferred to 20 °C (C, F). Whole fruits (skin+pericarp) were sampled at mature green stage (T0) and thereafter at various intervals (T1, T2, T3) for the three comparable timepoints during the ripening stages. The T1, T2, T3 time points at 20 °C were 10, 15, and 27 d storage; at 4 °C were 20, 29, and 38 d. For the transfer of fruit between 4 °C and 20 °C, 20 d at 4 °C (T1) followed by 9 d (T2), 18 d (T3) at 20 °C, respectively.

Mentions: Beta-carotene was the major compound accumulating in these fruit, during ripening and accounted for most of the increase in total carotenoids (Fig. 9). At T0, beta-carotene was 37.2% (2.57±0.9 μg g−1 FW) of all measured carotenoids but the proportion of beta-carotene increased to about 90% (42.82±15.49 μg g−1 FW) when fruit were stored at 20 °C. Beta-carotene peaked at 40% of total carotenoids when fruit were stored at 4 °C. The levels of alpha-carotene were barely detectable and did not show any variation in fruit stored at either 4 °C or 20 °C. Lutein levels increased from 1.89±0.5 to 2.56±0.21 μg g−1 FW in fruit stored at 20 °C, while at 4 °C lutein increased to 3.42±0.61 μg g−1 FW, indicating that temperature does not significantly influence the accumulation of this compound.


The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit.

Ampomah-Dwamena C, McGhie T, Wibisono R, Montefiori M, Hellens RP, Allan AC - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

The accumulation of carotenoids in Actinidia macrosperma ripe and stored fruit. Concentrations of β-carotene (A–C) and lutein (D–F) levels in fruit: error bars are standard errors of the mean from three independent measurements. Fruit were stored at 20 °C (A, D), 4 °C (B, E) or at 4 °C later transferred to 20 °C (C, F). Whole fruits (skin+pericarp) were sampled at mature green stage (T0) and thereafter at various intervals (T1, T2, T3) for the three comparable timepoints during the ripening stages. The T1, T2, T3 time points at 20 °C were 10, 15, and 27 d storage; at 4 °C were 20, 29, and 38 d. For the transfer of fruit between 4 °C and 20 °C, 20 d at 4 °C (T1) followed by 9 d (T2), 18 d (T3) at 20 °C, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2736891&req=5

fig9: The accumulation of carotenoids in Actinidia macrosperma ripe and stored fruit. Concentrations of β-carotene (A–C) and lutein (D–F) levels in fruit: error bars are standard errors of the mean from three independent measurements. Fruit were stored at 20 °C (A, D), 4 °C (B, E) or at 4 °C later transferred to 20 °C (C, F). Whole fruits (skin+pericarp) were sampled at mature green stage (T0) and thereafter at various intervals (T1, T2, T3) for the three comparable timepoints during the ripening stages. The T1, T2, T3 time points at 20 °C were 10, 15, and 27 d storage; at 4 °C were 20, 29, and 38 d. For the transfer of fruit between 4 °C and 20 °C, 20 d at 4 °C (T1) followed by 9 d (T2), 18 d (T3) at 20 °C, respectively.
Mentions: Beta-carotene was the major compound accumulating in these fruit, during ripening and accounted for most of the increase in total carotenoids (Fig. 9). At T0, beta-carotene was 37.2% (2.57±0.9 μg g−1 FW) of all measured carotenoids but the proportion of beta-carotene increased to about 90% (42.82±15.49 μg g−1 FW) when fruit were stored at 20 °C. Beta-carotene peaked at 40% of total carotenoids when fruit were stored at 4 °C. The levels of alpha-carotene were barely detectable and did not show any variation in fruit stored at either 4 °C or 20 °C. Lutein levels increased from 1.89±0.5 to 2.56±0.21 μg g−1 FW in fruit stored at 20 °C, while at 4 °C lutein increased to 3.42±0.61 μg g−1 FW, indicating that temperature does not significantly influence the accumulation of this compound.

Bottom Line: The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species.Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening.This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-beta gene.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Auckland, New Zealand. cdwamena@hortresearch.co.nz

ABSTRACT
The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes among different genotypes and fruit developmental stages identified Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-beta) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-beta), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-epsilon) showed some variation in gene expression. The LCY-beta gene was functionally tested in bacteria and shown to convert lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene respectively. This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-beta gene.

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