Limits...
Parasite immunomodulation and polymorphisms of the immune system.

Maizels RM - J. Biol. (2009)

Bottom Line: Parasites are accomplished evaders of host immunity.Their evasion strategies have shaped every facet of the immune system, driving diversity within gene families and immune gene polymorphisms within populations.New studies published recently in BMC Biology and Journal of Experimental Medicine document parasite-associated immunosuppression in natural populations and suggest that host genetic variants favoring resistance to parasites may be detrimental in the absence of infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, and Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK. rick.maizels@ed.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Parasites are accomplished evaders of host immunity. Their evasion strategies have shaped every facet of the immune system, driving diversity within gene families and immune gene polymorphisms within populations. New studies published recently in BMC Biology and Journal of Experimental Medicine document parasite-associated immunosuppression in natural populations and suggest that host genetic variants favoring resistance to parasites may be detrimental in the absence of infection.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Categories of parasites, using the broader definition to include fungi and ectoparasites. An ectoparasite (a louse of mice) has recently been found to exert similar immunomodulatory effects to those associated with gastrointestinal helminth infection in a wild wood mouse population [2]. Shown are, clockwise from top left, Leishmania mexicana protozoal promastigotes (L. Prieto-Lafuente); Candida albicans (from ); Ixodes hexagonus (from Wikipedia [15]); and Heligmosomoides polygyrus adult nematode worms (C Finney).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2736671&req=5

Figure 1: Categories of parasites, using the broader definition to include fungi and ectoparasites. An ectoparasite (a louse of mice) has recently been found to exert similar immunomodulatory effects to those associated with gastrointestinal helminth infection in a wild wood mouse population [2]. Shown are, clockwise from top left, Leishmania mexicana protozoal promastigotes (L. Prieto-Lafuente); Candida albicans (from ); Ixodes hexagonus (from Wikipedia [15]); and Heligmosomoides polygyrus adult nematode worms (C Finney).

Mentions: Parasites are eukaryotic pathogens, and broadly comprise protozoa, fungi, helminths and arthropods (Figure 1) that complete part or all of their life cycle within a host organism. Like other pathogens, parasites must survive in the face of a highly potent immune system. They succeed in this through a great diversity of strategies for avoiding immune detection, suppressing cellular immunity and deflecting immune attack mechanisms. It has been suggested that the need to overcome suppressive mechanisms of parasites may have led to compensatory adjustments in immune genes that, in an environment where parasitic infection is not endemic, may increase the likelihood of inappropriate responsiveness to self-antigens (autoimmunity) and environmental allergens (allergy). This notion has become known as the hygiene hypothesis [1]. Two recent papers, from Jackson et al. [2] and Fumagalli et al. [3] lend support to this hypothesis.


Parasite immunomodulation and polymorphisms of the immune system.

Maizels RM - J. Biol. (2009)

Categories of parasites, using the broader definition to include fungi and ectoparasites. An ectoparasite (a louse of mice) has recently been found to exert similar immunomodulatory effects to those associated with gastrointestinal helminth infection in a wild wood mouse population [2]. Shown are, clockwise from top left, Leishmania mexicana protozoal promastigotes (L. Prieto-Lafuente); Candida albicans (from ); Ixodes hexagonus (from Wikipedia [15]); and Heligmosomoides polygyrus adult nematode worms (C Finney).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2736671&req=5

Figure 1: Categories of parasites, using the broader definition to include fungi and ectoparasites. An ectoparasite (a louse of mice) has recently been found to exert similar immunomodulatory effects to those associated with gastrointestinal helminth infection in a wild wood mouse population [2]. Shown are, clockwise from top left, Leishmania mexicana protozoal promastigotes (L. Prieto-Lafuente); Candida albicans (from ); Ixodes hexagonus (from Wikipedia [15]); and Heligmosomoides polygyrus adult nematode worms (C Finney).
Mentions: Parasites are eukaryotic pathogens, and broadly comprise protozoa, fungi, helminths and arthropods (Figure 1) that complete part or all of their life cycle within a host organism. Like other pathogens, parasites must survive in the face of a highly potent immune system. They succeed in this through a great diversity of strategies for avoiding immune detection, suppressing cellular immunity and deflecting immune attack mechanisms. It has been suggested that the need to overcome suppressive mechanisms of parasites may have led to compensatory adjustments in immune genes that, in an environment where parasitic infection is not endemic, may increase the likelihood of inappropriate responsiveness to self-antigens (autoimmunity) and environmental allergens (allergy). This notion has become known as the hygiene hypothesis [1]. Two recent papers, from Jackson et al. [2] and Fumagalli et al. [3] lend support to this hypothesis.

Bottom Line: Parasites are accomplished evaders of host immunity.Their evasion strategies have shaped every facet of the immune system, driving diversity within gene families and immune gene polymorphisms within populations.New studies published recently in BMC Biology and Journal of Experimental Medicine document parasite-associated immunosuppression in natural populations and suggest that host genetic variants favoring resistance to parasites may be detrimental in the absence of infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, and Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK. rick.maizels@ed.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Parasites are accomplished evaders of host immunity. Their evasion strategies have shaped every facet of the immune system, driving diversity within gene families and immune gene polymorphisms within populations. New studies published recently in BMC Biology and Journal of Experimental Medicine document parasite-associated immunosuppression in natural populations and suggest that host genetic variants favoring resistance to parasites may be detrimental in the absence of infection.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus