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Transcription in mosquito hemocytes in response to pathogen exposure.

Hillyer JF - J. Biol. (2009)

Bottom Line: Mosquito hemocytes are blood cells that are fundamental for combating systemic infection.A study published in BMC Genomics shows that hemocyte gene transcription in response to immune challenge is pathogen-specific and reaffirms the primary role of these cells in immunity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences and Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 35-1634, Nashville, TN 37235-1634, USA. julian.hillyer@vanderbilt.edu

ABSTRACT
Mosquito hemocytes are blood cells that are fundamental for combating systemic infection. A study published in BMC Genomics shows that hemocyte gene transcription in response to immune challenge is pathogen-specific and reaffirms the primary role of these cells in immunity.

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Functional classification of genes transcribed in hemocytes. Among the genes transcriptionally regulated (up or down) following immune challenge, genes that function in immunity and apoptosis are overrepresented (blue) whereas genes that function in replication, transcription and translation are underrepresented (red). Genes in other functional classes (green) are not regulated at a higher or lower frequency than would be expected if there was no association between functional class and transcriptional regulation following challenge.
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Figure 1: Functional classification of genes transcribed in hemocytes. Among the genes transcriptionally regulated (up or down) following immune challenge, genes that function in immunity and apoptosis are overrepresented (blue) whereas genes that function in replication, transcription and translation are underrepresented (red). Genes in other functional classes (green) are not regulated at a higher or lower frequency than would be expected if there was no association between functional class and transcriptional regulation following challenge.

Mentions: In a recent article published in BMC Genomics, Baton et al. [7] present the first genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of the circulating hemocytes of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae following natural infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei and after immune challenge with heat-killed Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus. A total of 4,047 genes were found to be transcribed in hemocytes, of which 279 were present in at least two-fold higher abundance in hemocytes than in the rest of the body whereas 266 were found in lower abundance. Of the enriched transcripts, only 54.5% have predicted functions, highlighting the gap in our knowledge of mosquito biology. Of the genes with predicted functions, all components of the immune response were represented, including pattern recognition molecules, antimicrobial peptides, serine proteases, serine protease inhibitors, signal transduction proteins, stress response proteins, melanization-related molecules, redox/oxidoreductive molecules, and cytoskeletal organization and rearrangement (phagocytosis) proteins. Immune challenge with Plasmodium or bacteria resulted in the differential regulation of 959 genes, of which immunity-related genes were overrepresented whereas replication/transcription/translation-related genes were underrepresented, further showing that immune function is the primary role of hemocytes (Figure 1). When compared with previous studies, the transcriptome of A. gambiae hemocytes is mostly consistent with the transcriptomic profile of other mosquito species but not with that of Drosophila [6,8], illustrating evolutionary divergence within the order Diptera and underscoring the importance of directly studying insect species of vectorial significance.


Transcription in mosquito hemocytes in response to pathogen exposure.

Hillyer JF - J. Biol. (2009)

Functional classification of genes transcribed in hemocytes. Among the genes transcriptionally regulated (up or down) following immune challenge, genes that function in immunity and apoptosis are overrepresented (blue) whereas genes that function in replication, transcription and translation are underrepresented (red). Genes in other functional classes (green) are not regulated at a higher or lower frequency than would be expected if there was no association between functional class and transcriptional regulation following challenge.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2736665&req=5

Figure 1: Functional classification of genes transcribed in hemocytes. Among the genes transcriptionally regulated (up or down) following immune challenge, genes that function in immunity and apoptosis are overrepresented (blue) whereas genes that function in replication, transcription and translation are underrepresented (red). Genes in other functional classes (green) are not regulated at a higher or lower frequency than would be expected if there was no association between functional class and transcriptional regulation following challenge.
Mentions: In a recent article published in BMC Genomics, Baton et al. [7] present the first genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of the circulating hemocytes of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae following natural infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei and after immune challenge with heat-killed Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus. A total of 4,047 genes were found to be transcribed in hemocytes, of which 279 were present in at least two-fold higher abundance in hemocytes than in the rest of the body whereas 266 were found in lower abundance. Of the enriched transcripts, only 54.5% have predicted functions, highlighting the gap in our knowledge of mosquito biology. Of the genes with predicted functions, all components of the immune response were represented, including pattern recognition molecules, antimicrobial peptides, serine proteases, serine protease inhibitors, signal transduction proteins, stress response proteins, melanization-related molecules, redox/oxidoreductive molecules, and cytoskeletal organization and rearrangement (phagocytosis) proteins. Immune challenge with Plasmodium or bacteria resulted in the differential regulation of 959 genes, of which immunity-related genes were overrepresented whereas replication/transcription/translation-related genes were underrepresented, further showing that immune function is the primary role of hemocytes (Figure 1). When compared with previous studies, the transcriptome of A. gambiae hemocytes is mostly consistent with the transcriptomic profile of other mosquito species but not with that of Drosophila [6,8], illustrating evolutionary divergence within the order Diptera and underscoring the importance of directly studying insect species of vectorial significance.

Bottom Line: Mosquito hemocytes are blood cells that are fundamental for combating systemic infection.A study published in BMC Genomics shows that hemocyte gene transcription in response to immune challenge is pathogen-specific and reaffirms the primary role of these cells in immunity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences and Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 35-1634, Nashville, TN 37235-1634, USA. julian.hillyer@vanderbilt.edu

ABSTRACT
Mosquito hemocytes are blood cells that are fundamental for combating systemic infection. A study published in BMC Genomics shows that hemocyte gene transcription in response to immune challenge is pathogen-specific and reaffirms the primary role of these cells in immunity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus