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Bioimaging probes for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species.

Nagano T - J Clin Biochem Nutr (2009)

Bottom Line: Also, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) cause various biological events such as neurodegenerative disorders.Sensitive and specific detection methods for ROS and RNS in biological samples should be useful for elucidation of biological events both in vitro and in vivo.First, the probes for nitric oxide and peroxynitrite as RNS are introduced and the probes of hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous and singlet oxygen as ROS are discussed, based on the fluorescence off/on switching mechanisms including photoinduced electron transfer and spirocyclization processes, and with some applications for in vitro and in vivo systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chemical Biology Research Initiative, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in many pathogenic processes, including carcinogenesis, inflammation, ischemia-reperfusion injury and signal transduction. Also, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) cause various biological events such as neurodegenerative disorders. Sensitive and specific detection methods for ROS and RNS in biological samples should be useful for elucidation of biological events both in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescent probes based on small organic molecules have become indispensable tools in modern biology because they provide dynamic information concerning the localization and quantity of biological molecules of interest, without the need of genetic engineering of the sample. In this review, we recount some recent achievements in the field of small molecular fluorescent probes. First, the probes for nitric oxide and peroxynitrite as RNS are introduced and the probes of hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous and singlet oxygen as ROS are discussed, based on the fluorescence off/on switching mechanisms including photoinduced electron transfer and spirocyclization processes, and with some applications for in vitro and in vivo systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Various NO probes with different emission wavelengths
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Figure 6: Various NO probes with different emission wavelengths

Mentions: We have successfully developed several fluorescent probes (DANs, DAFs, DARs DCl-DA Cal and DAMBO-PH) for NO, and these probes have been widely used in biological applications. However, they have severe limitations with regard to ex vivo and in vivo applications to detect NO in isolated organs since their fluorescence lies in the visible region around 500–550 nm, which cannot penetrate deeply into human tissues. While visible light is highly absorbed by biological substances such as hemoglobin, near-infrared (NIR) light at around 650–900 nm is less absorbed by such molecules and can penetrate more deeply into tissues. Moreover, it has the further advantage that autofluorescence is not observed upon NIR excitation. For these reasons, NIR fluorescence imaging is potentially very attractive for in vivo imaging. This section presents novel NIR fluorescent probes which are highly sensitive to NO and establish their utility by imaging NO in isolated intact rat kidneys (Fig. 6).


Bioimaging probes for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species.

Nagano T - J Clin Biochem Nutr (2009)

Various NO probes with different emission wavelengths
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2735621&req=5

Figure 6: Various NO probes with different emission wavelengths
Mentions: We have successfully developed several fluorescent probes (DANs, DAFs, DARs DCl-DA Cal and DAMBO-PH) for NO, and these probes have been widely used in biological applications. However, they have severe limitations with regard to ex vivo and in vivo applications to detect NO in isolated organs since their fluorescence lies in the visible region around 500–550 nm, which cannot penetrate deeply into human tissues. While visible light is highly absorbed by biological substances such as hemoglobin, near-infrared (NIR) light at around 650–900 nm is less absorbed by such molecules and can penetrate more deeply into tissues. Moreover, it has the further advantage that autofluorescence is not observed upon NIR excitation. For these reasons, NIR fluorescence imaging is potentially very attractive for in vivo imaging. This section presents novel NIR fluorescent probes which are highly sensitive to NO and establish their utility by imaging NO in isolated intact rat kidneys (Fig. 6).

Bottom Line: Also, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) cause various biological events such as neurodegenerative disorders.Sensitive and specific detection methods for ROS and RNS in biological samples should be useful for elucidation of biological events both in vitro and in vivo.First, the probes for nitric oxide and peroxynitrite as RNS are introduced and the probes of hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous and singlet oxygen as ROS are discussed, based on the fluorescence off/on switching mechanisms including photoinduced electron transfer and spirocyclization processes, and with some applications for in vitro and in vivo systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chemical Biology Research Initiative, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in many pathogenic processes, including carcinogenesis, inflammation, ischemia-reperfusion injury and signal transduction. Also, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) cause various biological events such as neurodegenerative disorders. Sensitive and specific detection methods for ROS and RNS in biological samples should be useful for elucidation of biological events both in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescent probes based on small organic molecules have become indispensable tools in modern biology because they provide dynamic information concerning the localization and quantity of biological molecules of interest, without the need of genetic engineering of the sample. In this review, we recount some recent achievements in the field of small molecular fluorescent probes. First, the probes for nitric oxide and peroxynitrite as RNS are introduced and the probes of hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous and singlet oxygen as ROS are discussed, based on the fluorescence off/on switching mechanisms including photoinduced electron transfer and spirocyclization processes, and with some applications for in vitro and in vivo systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus