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Bioimaging probes for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species.

Nagano T - J Clin Biochem Nutr (2009)

Bottom Line: Also, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) cause various biological events such as neurodegenerative disorders.Sensitive and specific detection methods for ROS and RNS in biological samples should be useful for elucidation of biological events both in vitro and in vivo.First, the probes for nitric oxide and peroxynitrite as RNS are introduced and the probes of hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous and singlet oxygen as ROS are discussed, based on the fluorescence off/on switching mechanisms including photoinduced electron transfer and spirocyclization processes, and with some applications for in vitro and in vivo systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chemical Biology Research Initiative, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in many pathogenic processes, including carcinogenesis, inflammation, ischemia-reperfusion injury and signal transduction. Also, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) cause various biological events such as neurodegenerative disorders. Sensitive and specific detection methods for ROS and RNS in biological samples should be useful for elucidation of biological events both in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescent probes based on small organic molecules have become indispensable tools in modern biology because they provide dynamic information concerning the localization and quantity of biological molecules of interest, without the need of genetic engineering of the sample. In this review, we recount some recent achievements in the field of small molecular fluorescent probes. First, the probes for nitric oxide and peroxynitrite as RNS are introduced and the probes of hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous and singlet oxygen as ROS are discussed, based on the fluorescence off/on switching mechanisms including photoinduced electron transfer and spirocyclization processes, and with some applications for in vitro and in vivo systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Reaction of DAN with NO to form NAT in the presence of O2 in neutral buffer
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Figure 1: Reaction of DAN with NO to form NAT in the presence of O2 in neutral buffer

Mentions: In attempts to measure NO generated under physiological conditions, we developed a fluorometric method that exploits the ability of NO to produce N-nitrosating agents. The method is based on the use of an aromatic diamino compound (DAN). The relatively nonfluorescent DAN reacts rapidly with N-nitrosating agent(s) to yield the highly fluorescent product (NAT). We found DAN can react with NO to yield NAT in the presence of O2 under a neutral condition (Fig. 1) [2]. Until then, DAN had been considered as a reagent for the detection of NO2− under acidic conditions. However, the results obtained mean that the reaction of NO with DAN aerobically produces the fluorescent compound NAT quantitatively in an aqueous medium, even under physiological conditions. In fact, the fluorescence intensity increases dose-dependently on addition of NO to the DAN solution. Under these neutral reaction conditions, NO2− and NO3− cannot convert DAN into NAT, which the selectivity for NO is high.


Bioimaging probes for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species.

Nagano T - J Clin Biochem Nutr (2009)

Reaction of DAN with NO to form NAT in the presence of O2 in neutral buffer
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2735621&req=5

Figure 1: Reaction of DAN with NO to form NAT in the presence of O2 in neutral buffer
Mentions: In attempts to measure NO generated under physiological conditions, we developed a fluorometric method that exploits the ability of NO to produce N-nitrosating agents. The method is based on the use of an aromatic diamino compound (DAN). The relatively nonfluorescent DAN reacts rapidly with N-nitrosating agent(s) to yield the highly fluorescent product (NAT). We found DAN can react with NO to yield NAT in the presence of O2 under a neutral condition (Fig. 1) [2]. Until then, DAN had been considered as a reagent for the detection of NO2− under acidic conditions. However, the results obtained mean that the reaction of NO with DAN aerobically produces the fluorescent compound NAT quantitatively in an aqueous medium, even under physiological conditions. In fact, the fluorescence intensity increases dose-dependently on addition of NO to the DAN solution. Under these neutral reaction conditions, NO2− and NO3− cannot convert DAN into NAT, which the selectivity for NO is high.

Bottom Line: Also, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) cause various biological events such as neurodegenerative disorders.Sensitive and specific detection methods for ROS and RNS in biological samples should be useful for elucidation of biological events both in vitro and in vivo.First, the probes for nitric oxide and peroxynitrite as RNS are introduced and the probes of hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous and singlet oxygen as ROS are discussed, based on the fluorescence off/on switching mechanisms including photoinduced electron transfer and spirocyclization processes, and with some applications for in vitro and in vivo systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chemical Biology Research Initiative, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in many pathogenic processes, including carcinogenesis, inflammation, ischemia-reperfusion injury and signal transduction. Also, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) cause various biological events such as neurodegenerative disorders. Sensitive and specific detection methods for ROS and RNS in biological samples should be useful for elucidation of biological events both in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescent probes based on small organic molecules have become indispensable tools in modern biology because they provide dynamic information concerning the localization and quantity of biological molecules of interest, without the need of genetic engineering of the sample. In this review, we recount some recent achievements in the field of small molecular fluorescent probes. First, the probes for nitric oxide and peroxynitrite as RNS are introduced and the probes of hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous and singlet oxygen as ROS are discussed, based on the fluorescence off/on switching mechanisms including photoinduced electron transfer and spirocyclization processes, and with some applications for in vitro and in vivo systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus