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Access to water source, latrine facilities and other risk factors of active trachoma in Ankober, Ethiopia.

Golovaty I, Jones L, Gelaye B, Tilahun M, Belete H, Kumie A, Berhane Y, Williams MA - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: A total of 507 children (ages 1-9 years), from 232 households were included in the study.Presence of fly-eye (fly contact with the eyelid margin during eye examination) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 4.03 95% CI 1.40-11.59), absence of facial cleanliness (OR = 7.59; 95%CI 4.60-12.52), an illiterate mother (OR = 5.88; 95%CI 2.10-15.95), lack of access to piped water (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.14-6.08), and lack of access to latrine facilities (OR = 4.36; 95%CI 1.49-12.74) were statistically significantly associated with increased risk of active trachoma.Active trachoma among children 1-9 years of age in Ankober is highly prevalent and significantly associated with a number of risk factors including access to water and latrine facilities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Multidisciplinary International Research Training Program, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence and correlates of active trachoma in Ankober, Ethiopia.

Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during July 2007. A total of 507 children (ages 1-9 years), from 232 households were included in the study. All children were examined for trachoma by ophthalmic nurses using the WHO simplified clinical grading system. Interviews and observations were used to assess risk factors. Logistic regression procedures were used to determine associations between potential risk factors and signs of active trachoma.

Results: Overall, the prevalence of active trachoma was found to be 53.9% (95%CI 49.6%-58.2%). Presence of fly-eye (fly contact with the eyelid margin during eye examination) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 4.03 95% CI 1.40-11.59), absence of facial cleanliness (OR = 7.59; 95%CI 4.60-12.52), an illiterate mother (OR = 5.88; 95%CI 2.10-15.95), lack of access to piped water (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.14-6.08), and lack of access to latrine facilities (OR = 4.36; 95%CI 1.49-12.74) were statistically significantly associated with increased risk of active trachoma.

Conclusion: Active trachoma among children 1-9 years of age in Ankober is highly prevalent and significantly associated with a number of risk factors including access to water and latrine facilities. Trachoma prevention programs that include improved access to water and sanitation, active fly control, and hygiene education are recommended to lower the burden of trachoma in Ankober, Ethiopia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Prevalence of active trachoma by age in Ankober, Ethiopia, July 2007.
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pone-0006702-g002: Prevalence of active trachoma by age in Ankober, Ethiopia, July 2007.

Mentions: As shown in Table 3, logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of active trachoma decreased with increased age. Children under the age of three had nearly a two and half times greater risk of active trachoma than children over the age of seven (OR = 2.42; 95% CI 1.38–4.27). Figure 2 shows an overall decreasing trend of active trachoma with age among children 1–9 in the sample population; there is a peak of prevalence at 1 year and an increased in trachoma at year 4 and 7. Gender was not statistically significantly associated with risk of active trachoma. Factors related with child cleanliness were associated with active trachoma. Children with dirty faces were over 7 times more likely to have active trachoma than children with clean faces (OR = 7.59; 95% CI 4.60–12.52). Children with fly-eye were 4 times more likely to have active trachoma (OR = 4.03; 95% CI 1.40–11.59), as were children without access to a latrine (OR = 4.36; 95% CI 1.49–12.74). Children with illiterate mothers were almost 6 times more likely to have active trachoma (OR = 5.88; 95% CI 2.10–15.95) whereas children with illiterate fathers had no significant association with increased risk of active trachoma (OR = 1.61; 95% CI 0.53–4.96). Children who only had access to river or lake water had a greater than doubling in risk of active trachoma (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.14–6.08), as compared with those children who had access to piped water.


Access to water source, latrine facilities and other risk factors of active trachoma in Ankober, Ethiopia.

Golovaty I, Jones L, Gelaye B, Tilahun M, Belete H, Kumie A, Berhane Y, Williams MA - PLoS ONE (2009)

Prevalence of active trachoma by age in Ankober, Ethiopia, July 2007.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724741&req=5

pone-0006702-g002: Prevalence of active trachoma by age in Ankober, Ethiopia, July 2007.
Mentions: As shown in Table 3, logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of active trachoma decreased with increased age. Children under the age of three had nearly a two and half times greater risk of active trachoma than children over the age of seven (OR = 2.42; 95% CI 1.38–4.27). Figure 2 shows an overall decreasing trend of active trachoma with age among children 1–9 in the sample population; there is a peak of prevalence at 1 year and an increased in trachoma at year 4 and 7. Gender was not statistically significantly associated with risk of active trachoma. Factors related with child cleanliness were associated with active trachoma. Children with dirty faces were over 7 times more likely to have active trachoma than children with clean faces (OR = 7.59; 95% CI 4.60–12.52). Children with fly-eye were 4 times more likely to have active trachoma (OR = 4.03; 95% CI 1.40–11.59), as were children without access to a latrine (OR = 4.36; 95% CI 1.49–12.74). Children with illiterate mothers were almost 6 times more likely to have active trachoma (OR = 5.88; 95% CI 2.10–15.95) whereas children with illiterate fathers had no significant association with increased risk of active trachoma (OR = 1.61; 95% CI 0.53–4.96). Children who only had access to river or lake water had a greater than doubling in risk of active trachoma (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.14–6.08), as compared with those children who had access to piped water.

Bottom Line: A total of 507 children (ages 1-9 years), from 232 households were included in the study.Presence of fly-eye (fly contact with the eyelid margin during eye examination) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 4.03 95% CI 1.40-11.59), absence of facial cleanliness (OR = 7.59; 95%CI 4.60-12.52), an illiterate mother (OR = 5.88; 95%CI 2.10-15.95), lack of access to piped water (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.14-6.08), and lack of access to latrine facilities (OR = 4.36; 95%CI 1.49-12.74) were statistically significantly associated with increased risk of active trachoma.Active trachoma among children 1-9 years of age in Ankober is highly prevalent and significantly associated with a number of risk factors including access to water and latrine facilities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Multidisciplinary International Research Training Program, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence and correlates of active trachoma in Ankober, Ethiopia.

Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during July 2007. A total of 507 children (ages 1-9 years), from 232 households were included in the study. All children were examined for trachoma by ophthalmic nurses using the WHO simplified clinical grading system. Interviews and observations were used to assess risk factors. Logistic regression procedures were used to determine associations between potential risk factors and signs of active trachoma.

Results: Overall, the prevalence of active trachoma was found to be 53.9% (95%CI 49.6%-58.2%). Presence of fly-eye (fly contact with the eyelid margin during eye examination) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 4.03 95% CI 1.40-11.59), absence of facial cleanliness (OR = 7.59; 95%CI 4.60-12.52), an illiterate mother (OR = 5.88; 95%CI 2.10-15.95), lack of access to piped water (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.14-6.08), and lack of access to latrine facilities (OR = 4.36; 95%CI 1.49-12.74) were statistically significantly associated with increased risk of active trachoma.

Conclusion: Active trachoma among children 1-9 years of age in Ankober is highly prevalent and significantly associated with a number of risk factors including access to water and latrine facilities. Trachoma prevention programs that include improved access to water and sanitation, active fly control, and hygiene education are recommended to lower the burden of trachoma in Ankober, Ethiopia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus