Limits...
Lipid and protein accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species: Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L., and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

Borek S, Pukacka S, Michalski K, Ratajczak L - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Bottom Line: Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid.The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids.The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland. borek@amu.edu.pl

ABSTRACT
A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) 7-14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96 h on Heller medium with 60 mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35 mM asparagine or 35 mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Electron micrographs of cotyledons isolated from seeds from developmental stage III (used for preparation of in vitro culture). CW, cell wall; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; M, mitochondrion; OB, oil body; S, starch; SP, storage protein; V, vacuole.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724698&req=5

fig3: Electron micrographs of cotyledons isolated from seeds from developmental stage III (used for preparation of in vitro culture). CW, cell wall; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; M, mitochondrion; OB, oil body; S, starch; SP, storage protein; V, vacuole.

Mentions: Different lipid levels in seeds of the three lupine species were clearly visible in the ultrastructure of cotyledon parenchyma cells. Cells from the central part of cotyledons from stage III were investigated. In yellow lupine cotyledons, oil bodies were small and sparse. They were sited mostly near the cell wall and vacuole, and rarely were dispersed in the cytoplasm (Fig. 3). In white lupine cotyledons, oil bodies were more numerous than in yellow lupine cotyledons but they were distributed evenly in the cytoplasm. The highest number of oil bodies was in Andean lupine cotyledons. They were visible mostly near the cell wall and in different parts of the cytoplasm, where they were aggregated in clusters (Fig. 3). Thus, clear superiority of Andean lupine in accumulating oil was noticed at the ultrastructural level in developmental stage III. Moreover, large starch granules were visible in cotyledons from developmental stage III of each investigated lupine species (Fig. 3).


Lipid and protein accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species: Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L., and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

Borek S, Pukacka S, Michalski K, Ratajczak L - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Electron micrographs of cotyledons isolated from seeds from developmental stage III (used for preparation of in vitro culture). CW, cell wall; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; M, mitochondrion; OB, oil body; S, starch; SP, storage protein; V, vacuole.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724698&req=5

fig3: Electron micrographs of cotyledons isolated from seeds from developmental stage III (used for preparation of in vitro culture). CW, cell wall; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; M, mitochondrion; OB, oil body; S, starch; SP, storage protein; V, vacuole.
Mentions: Different lipid levels in seeds of the three lupine species were clearly visible in the ultrastructure of cotyledon parenchyma cells. Cells from the central part of cotyledons from stage III were investigated. In yellow lupine cotyledons, oil bodies were small and sparse. They were sited mostly near the cell wall and vacuole, and rarely were dispersed in the cytoplasm (Fig. 3). In white lupine cotyledons, oil bodies were more numerous than in yellow lupine cotyledons but they were distributed evenly in the cytoplasm. The highest number of oil bodies was in Andean lupine cotyledons. They were visible mostly near the cell wall and in different parts of the cytoplasm, where they were aggregated in clusters (Fig. 3). Thus, clear superiority of Andean lupine in accumulating oil was noticed at the ultrastructural level in developmental stage III. Moreover, large starch granules were visible in cotyledons from developmental stage III of each investigated lupine species (Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid.The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids.The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland. borek@amu.edu.pl

ABSTRACT
A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) 7-14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96 h on Heller medium with 60 mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35 mM asparagine or 35 mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus