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Developmental expression profile of the YY2 gene in mice.

Drews D, Klar M, Dame C, Bräuer AU - BMC Dev. Biol. (2009)

Bottom Line: Again, only yy2 showed significantly altered gene expression levels among the cell types.For the first time, developmental changes of yy2 transcription became obvious in various areas of the brain.This suggests that yy2 is involved in developmental gene regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neonatology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany. david.drews@charite.de

ABSTRACT

Background: The transcription factor Yin Yang 2 (YY2) shares a structural and functional highly homologue DNA-binding domain with the ubiquitously expressed YY1 protein, which has been implicated in regulating fundamental biological processes. However, the biological relevance of YY2 has not been identified yet.

Results: Towards the understanding of YY2 biology, we analyzed in detail the expression pattern of yy2 in various organs during embryonic and postnatal mouse development till adulthood. Thereby, a constant yy2 level was detected in heart and lung tissue, whereas in different brain regions yy2 expression was dynamically regulated. Interestingly, in any analyzed tissue neither the homologue yy1 nor the mbtps2 gene showed changes in mRNA expression levels like yy2, although the intronless yy2 gene is located within the mbtps2 locus.Furthermore, we detected yy1, yy2, and mbtps2 mRNA in primary mouse neurons, microglia cells, and astrocytes. In comparison to yy2 and mbtps2, yy1 revealed the highest expression level in all cell types. Again, only yy2 showed significantly altered gene expression levels among the cell types. Higher yy2 expression levels were detected in microglia cells and astrocytes than in primary neurons.

Conclusion: Yy2 expression in the heart and lung is constitutively expressed during embryogenesis and in adult mice. For the first time, developmental changes of yy2 transcription became obvious in various areas of the brain. This suggests that yy2 is involved in developmental gene regulation.

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Expression of yy2 in developing mice. A. Whole mount in situ hybridization of E11.5 embryo with a DIG-labeled yy2 antisense riboprobe. For a better orientation different regions are indicated; forebrain (fb), midbrain (mb), hindbrain (hb), optical vesicles (op), spinal cord (sc), forelimb buds (fl), liver (li) and hindlimb buds (hl). B. Hybridization with the yy2 sense riboprobe served as control (magnification: 4-fold).
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Figure 1: Expression of yy2 in developing mice. A. Whole mount in situ hybridization of E11.5 embryo with a DIG-labeled yy2 antisense riboprobe. For a better orientation different regions are indicated; forebrain (fb), midbrain (mb), hindbrain (hb), optical vesicles (op), spinal cord (sc), forelimb buds (fl), liver (li) and hindlimb buds (hl). B. Hybridization with the yy2 sense riboprobe served as control (magnification: 4-fold).

Mentions: Since there are only limited data available on the organ-specific yy2 expression [6,7], we established the whole mount in situ hybridization technique. First experiments with DIG-labeled riboprobes showed wide spread signals of yy2 transcripts on the entire E11.5 embryo (Figure 1A), suggesting ubiquitous expression similar as described for yy1 [3]. The specificity of the antisense riboprobe staining is underlined by the negative control, where the embryo was incubated with the corresponding sense riboprobe (Figure 1B). To analyze the yy2 expression pattern more precisely, we subsequently performed TaqMan real-time PCR in selected organs and tissue specimens of developing and adult mice.


Developmental expression profile of the YY2 gene in mice.

Drews D, Klar M, Dame C, Bräuer AU - BMC Dev. Biol. (2009)

Expression of yy2 in developing mice. A. Whole mount in situ hybridization of E11.5 embryo with a DIG-labeled yy2 antisense riboprobe. For a better orientation different regions are indicated; forebrain (fb), midbrain (mb), hindbrain (hb), optical vesicles (op), spinal cord (sc), forelimb buds (fl), liver (li) and hindlimb buds (hl). B. Hybridization with the yy2 sense riboprobe served as control (magnification: 4-fold).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724487&req=5

Figure 1: Expression of yy2 in developing mice. A. Whole mount in situ hybridization of E11.5 embryo with a DIG-labeled yy2 antisense riboprobe. For a better orientation different regions are indicated; forebrain (fb), midbrain (mb), hindbrain (hb), optical vesicles (op), spinal cord (sc), forelimb buds (fl), liver (li) and hindlimb buds (hl). B. Hybridization with the yy2 sense riboprobe served as control (magnification: 4-fold).
Mentions: Since there are only limited data available on the organ-specific yy2 expression [6,7], we established the whole mount in situ hybridization technique. First experiments with DIG-labeled riboprobes showed wide spread signals of yy2 transcripts on the entire E11.5 embryo (Figure 1A), suggesting ubiquitous expression similar as described for yy1 [3]. The specificity of the antisense riboprobe staining is underlined by the negative control, where the embryo was incubated with the corresponding sense riboprobe (Figure 1B). To analyze the yy2 expression pattern more precisely, we subsequently performed TaqMan real-time PCR in selected organs and tissue specimens of developing and adult mice.

Bottom Line: Again, only yy2 showed significantly altered gene expression levels among the cell types.For the first time, developmental changes of yy2 transcription became obvious in various areas of the brain.This suggests that yy2 is involved in developmental gene regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neonatology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany. david.drews@charite.de

ABSTRACT

Background: The transcription factor Yin Yang 2 (YY2) shares a structural and functional highly homologue DNA-binding domain with the ubiquitously expressed YY1 protein, which has been implicated in regulating fundamental biological processes. However, the biological relevance of YY2 has not been identified yet.

Results: Towards the understanding of YY2 biology, we analyzed in detail the expression pattern of yy2 in various organs during embryonic and postnatal mouse development till adulthood. Thereby, a constant yy2 level was detected in heart and lung tissue, whereas in different brain regions yy2 expression was dynamically regulated. Interestingly, in any analyzed tissue neither the homologue yy1 nor the mbtps2 gene showed changes in mRNA expression levels like yy2, although the intronless yy2 gene is located within the mbtps2 locus.Furthermore, we detected yy1, yy2, and mbtps2 mRNA in primary mouse neurons, microglia cells, and astrocytes. In comparison to yy2 and mbtps2, yy1 revealed the highest expression level in all cell types. Again, only yy2 showed significantly altered gene expression levels among the cell types. Higher yy2 expression levels were detected in microglia cells and astrocytes than in primary neurons.

Conclusion: Yy2 expression in the heart and lung is constitutively expressed during embryogenesis and in adult mice. For the first time, developmental changes of yy2 transcription became obvious in various areas of the brain. This suggests that yy2 is involved in developmental gene regulation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus