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Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

Martin S, Jeffrey M, González L, Sisó S, Reid HW, Steele P, Dagleish MP, Stack MJ, Chaplin MJ, Balachandran A - BMC Vet. Res. (2009)

Bottom Line: Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations.After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues.Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA-Lasswade), Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK. s.f.martin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus).

Results: After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use.

Conclusion: Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

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CWD Deer. Labelling of PrPd in tingible body macrophages (a) and follicular dendritic cells (b) within the secondary follicle of a retropharyngeal lymph node.
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Figure 9: CWD Deer. Labelling of PrPd in tingible body macrophages (a) and follicular dendritic cells (b) within the secondary follicle of a retropharyngeal lymph node.

Mentions: In BSE inoculated deer, PrPd was detected in all segments of the spinal cord, in autonomic ganglia, cranial and peripheral nerves and in the sensory retina. Strong immunolabelling was found in neurones throughout the enteric nervous system, sometimes in close proximity to nearby lymphoid follicles (Fig 8). However, the Peyer's patches, and all other lymphoid tissues, were negative, as were all other organs examined (for details see [8]). In contrast, CWD infected deer were consistently PrPd positive in rectal biopsies and in the retropharyngeal lymph node (Fig 9).


Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

Martin S, Jeffrey M, González L, Sisó S, Reid HW, Steele P, Dagleish MP, Stack MJ, Chaplin MJ, Balachandran A - BMC Vet. Res. (2009)

CWD Deer. Labelling of PrPd in tingible body macrophages (a) and follicular dendritic cells (b) within the secondary follicle of a retropharyngeal lymph node.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724422&req=5

Figure 9: CWD Deer. Labelling of PrPd in tingible body macrophages (a) and follicular dendritic cells (b) within the secondary follicle of a retropharyngeal lymph node.
Mentions: In BSE inoculated deer, PrPd was detected in all segments of the spinal cord, in autonomic ganglia, cranial and peripheral nerves and in the sensory retina. Strong immunolabelling was found in neurones throughout the enteric nervous system, sometimes in close proximity to nearby lymphoid follicles (Fig 8). However, the Peyer's patches, and all other lymphoid tissues, were negative, as were all other organs examined (for details see [8]). In contrast, CWD infected deer were consistently PrPd positive in rectal biopsies and in the retropharyngeal lymph node (Fig 9).

Bottom Line: Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations.After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues.Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA-Lasswade), Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK. s.f.martin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus).

Results: After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use.

Conclusion: Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus