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Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

Martin S, Jeffrey M, González L, Sisó S, Reid HW, Steele P, Dagleish MP, Stack MJ, Chaplin MJ, Balachandran A - BMC Vet. Res. (2009)

Bottom Line: Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations.After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues.Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

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Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA-Lasswade), Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK. s.f.martin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus).

Results: After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use.

Conclusion: Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

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CWD deer. Comparison of intraneuronal labelling with BAR224 (C-terminal) and 12B2 (n-terminal) mAbs showing no reduction of the intracellular signal with the n-terminal targeting antibody.
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Figure 7: CWD deer. Comparison of intraneuronal labelling with BAR224 (C-terminal) and 12B2 (n-terminal) mAbs showing no reduction of the intracellular signal with the n-terminal targeting antibody.

Mentions: These differences in the patterns of PrPd accumulation between BSE and CWD resulted in distinct PrPd profiles that made subjective discrimination relatively straightforward (Figs. 4, 5). Further differences were evident when evaluating the epitope mapping features of the PrPd molecules of both infections. Samples of obex and midbrain were immunolabelled with N-terminal 12B2 antibody to assess the magnitude of intra-neuronal PrPd signal in comparison with that obtained with BAR224. In BSE infected deer, the intra-neuronal PrPd observed in almost all neuronal populations with BAR224 was significantly reduced or lost with 12B2 (Fig. 6), while in CWD affected animals, the lower level of intra-neuronal PrPd labelled with BAR224 was nevertheless maintained with 12B2 (Fig. 7). No significant difference in extra-cellular signal recovery was seen between CWD and BSE when comparing results with these N-terminal and globular domain antibodies.


Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

Martin S, Jeffrey M, González L, Sisó S, Reid HW, Steele P, Dagleish MP, Stack MJ, Chaplin MJ, Balachandran A - BMC Vet. Res. (2009)

CWD deer. Comparison of intraneuronal labelling with BAR224 (C-terminal) and 12B2 (n-terminal) mAbs showing no reduction of the intracellular signal with the n-terminal targeting antibody.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724422&req=5

Figure 7: CWD deer. Comparison of intraneuronal labelling with BAR224 (C-terminal) and 12B2 (n-terminal) mAbs showing no reduction of the intracellular signal with the n-terminal targeting antibody.
Mentions: These differences in the patterns of PrPd accumulation between BSE and CWD resulted in distinct PrPd profiles that made subjective discrimination relatively straightforward (Figs. 4, 5). Further differences were evident when evaluating the epitope mapping features of the PrPd molecules of both infections. Samples of obex and midbrain were immunolabelled with N-terminal 12B2 antibody to assess the magnitude of intra-neuronal PrPd signal in comparison with that obtained with BAR224. In BSE infected deer, the intra-neuronal PrPd observed in almost all neuronal populations with BAR224 was significantly reduced or lost with 12B2 (Fig. 6), while in CWD affected animals, the lower level of intra-neuronal PrPd labelled with BAR224 was nevertheless maintained with 12B2 (Fig. 7). No significant difference in extra-cellular signal recovery was seen between CWD and BSE when comparing results with these N-terminal and globular domain antibodies.

Bottom Line: Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations.After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues.Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA-Lasswade), Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK. s.f.martin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus).

Results: After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use.

Conclusion: Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus