Limits...
Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

Martin S, Jeffrey M, González L, Sisó S, Reid HW, Steele P, Dagleish MP, Stack MJ, Chaplin MJ, Balachandran A - BMC Vet. Res. (2009)

Bottom Line: Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations.After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues.Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA-Lasswade), Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK. s.f.martin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus).

Results: After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use.

Conclusion: Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

CWD Deer. Vacuolation (oval) and diffuse PrPd accumulation is present in the grey matter of the striatum of the brain. Focal intense plaque-like accumulations of PrPd (boxes) are also present.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724422&req=5

Figure 3: CWD Deer. Vacuolation (oval) and diffuse PrPd accumulation is present in the grey matter of the striatum of the brain. Focal intense plaque-like accumulations of PrPd (boxes) are also present.

Mentions: Accumulation of PrPd in the brain. Widespread diffuse particulate labelling of the neuropil and intense intra-neuronal accumulations of PrPd were observed throughout the brains of BSE affected deer in sections labelled with BAR224 antibody. Peri-neuronal labelling was prominent in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV) and in the corpus striatum. Intraneuronal granular accumulations were prominent in nuclei of the medulla oblongata, such as the accessory cuneate, spinal trigeminal and posterior olivary, but were also present elsewhere in the brain with the exception of Purkinje cells. Notably, there was also intense labelling of the Golgi neurones in the granular cell layer of the cerebellum (Fig 2), which has not been described in sheep or goat scrapie and which was absent in the CWD infected deer. Slight differences in topographical distribution of PrPd accumulation were observed between the BSE affected deer: while five of the i.c. inoculated animals showed abundant PrPd deposits in forebrain areas, the single orally-challenged and one of the i.c. inoculated animals accumulated PrPd predominantly in the brainstem and cerebellum, and very little elsewhere. This last animal (deer 1 in table 1) was killed early in the clinical phase of disease for welfare reasons, and this may account for the lower overall magnitude of PrPd and for the little involvement of forebrain areas. In contrast to the BSE infected deer, the brains of CWD-affected animals showed weak and inconsistent, fine punctate intra-neuronal labelling mainly in neurons of the brainstem and of the deep nuclei of the cerebellum. Like BSE cases, peri-neuronal labelling was conspicuous in the DMNV; unlike BSE cases, particulate and coalescing PrPd labelling in the neuropil was prominent, with plaque like accumulations seen throughout most brain areas, often associated with white matter bundles and areas of conspicuous vacuolation (Fig. 3).


Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

Martin S, Jeffrey M, González L, Sisó S, Reid HW, Steele P, Dagleish MP, Stack MJ, Chaplin MJ, Balachandran A - BMC Vet. Res. (2009)

CWD Deer. Vacuolation (oval) and diffuse PrPd accumulation is present in the grey matter of the striatum of the brain. Focal intense plaque-like accumulations of PrPd (boxes) are also present.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724422&req=5

Figure 3: CWD Deer. Vacuolation (oval) and diffuse PrPd accumulation is present in the grey matter of the striatum of the brain. Focal intense plaque-like accumulations of PrPd (boxes) are also present.
Mentions: Accumulation of PrPd in the brain. Widespread diffuse particulate labelling of the neuropil and intense intra-neuronal accumulations of PrPd were observed throughout the brains of BSE affected deer in sections labelled with BAR224 antibody. Peri-neuronal labelling was prominent in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV) and in the corpus striatum. Intraneuronal granular accumulations were prominent in nuclei of the medulla oblongata, such as the accessory cuneate, spinal trigeminal and posterior olivary, but were also present elsewhere in the brain with the exception of Purkinje cells. Notably, there was also intense labelling of the Golgi neurones in the granular cell layer of the cerebellum (Fig 2), which has not been described in sheep or goat scrapie and which was absent in the CWD infected deer. Slight differences in topographical distribution of PrPd accumulation were observed between the BSE affected deer: while five of the i.c. inoculated animals showed abundant PrPd deposits in forebrain areas, the single orally-challenged and one of the i.c. inoculated animals accumulated PrPd predominantly in the brainstem and cerebellum, and very little elsewhere. This last animal (deer 1 in table 1) was killed early in the clinical phase of disease for welfare reasons, and this may account for the lower overall magnitude of PrPd and for the little involvement of forebrain areas. In contrast to the BSE infected deer, the brains of CWD-affected animals showed weak and inconsistent, fine punctate intra-neuronal labelling mainly in neurons of the brainstem and of the deep nuclei of the cerebellum. Like BSE cases, peri-neuronal labelling was conspicuous in the DMNV; unlike BSE cases, particulate and coalescing PrPd labelling in the neuropil was prominent, with plaque like accumulations seen throughout most brain areas, often associated with white matter bundles and areas of conspicuous vacuolation (Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations.After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues.Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA-Lasswade), Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK. s.f.martin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus).

Results: After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use.

Conclusion: Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus