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Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

Martin S, Jeffrey M, González L, Sisó S, Reid HW, Steele P, Dagleish MP, Stack MJ, Chaplin MJ, Balachandran A - BMC Vet. Res. (2009)

Bottom Line: Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations.After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues.Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

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Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA-Lasswade), Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK. s.f.martin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus).

Results: After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use.

Conclusion: Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

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CWD deer. Analysis of brain homogenates by Biorad TeSeE Western Blotting using F99, 6H4, SHA31, P4 and 12B2. The molecular weights of samples from the four red deer experimentally infected with CWD were variable although all of them appeared higher than the cattle BSE control and are more consistent with the naturally infected CWD and scrapie controls.
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Figure 11: CWD deer. Analysis of brain homogenates by Biorad TeSeE Western Blotting using F99, 6H4, SHA31, P4 and 12B2. The molecular weights of samples from the four red deer experimentally infected with CWD were variable although all of them appeared higher than the cattle BSE control and are more consistent with the naturally infected CWD and scrapie controls.

Mentions: The samples from red deer experimentally infected with BSE, either orally or i.c., all gave molecular weight profiles similar to those of cattle BSE, with a lower molecular weight for the unglycosylated protein band compared to that obtained for ovine scrapie, elk CWD or red deer CWD samples; the latter showed some degree of variability. The antibody affinity was also different between BSE and CWD infected deer. The former showed strong signal with antibodies raised to the C-terminal region of the prion protein (F99) and to globular domain (6H4 and Sha31) and no signal with the antibodies raised to the N-terminus of PrP (P4 and 12B2; Fig. 10), while this reactivity was present in CWD infected animals (Fig. 11).


Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

Martin S, Jeffrey M, González L, Sisó S, Reid HW, Steele P, Dagleish MP, Stack MJ, Chaplin MJ, Balachandran A - BMC Vet. Res. (2009)

CWD deer. Analysis of brain homogenates by Biorad TeSeE Western Blotting using F99, 6H4, SHA31, P4 and 12B2. The molecular weights of samples from the four red deer experimentally infected with CWD were variable although all of them appeared higher than the cattle BSE control and are more consistent with the naturally infected CWD and scrapie controls.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724422&req=5

Figure 11: CWD deer. Analysis of brain homogenates by Biorad TeSeE Western Blotting using F99, 6H4, SHA31, P4 and 12B2. The molecular weights of samples from the four red deer experimentally infected with CWD were variable although all of them appeared higher than the cattle BSE control and are more consistent with the naturally infected CWD and scrapie controls.
Mentions: The samples from red deer experimentally infected with BSE, either orally or i.c., all gave molecular weight profiles similar to those of cattle BSE, with a lower molecular weight for the unglycosylated protein band compared to that obtained for ovine scrapie, elk CWD or red deer CWD samples; the latter showed some degree of variability. The antibody affinity was also different between BSE and CWD infected deer. The former showed strong signal with antibodies raised to the C-terminal region of the prion protein (F99) and to globular domain (6H4 and Sha31) and no signal with the antibodies raised to the N-terminus of PrP (P4 and 12B2; Fig. 10), while this reactivity was present in CWD infected animals (Fig. 11).

Bottom Line: Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations.After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues.Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA-Lasswade), Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK. s.f.martin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus).

Results: After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use.

Conclusion: Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus