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Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

Martin S, Jeffrey M, González L, Sisó S, Reid HW, Steele P, Dagleish MP, Stack MJ, Chaplin MJ, Balachandran A - BMC Vet. Res. (2009)

Bottom Line: Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations.After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues.Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA-Lasswade), Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK. s.f.martin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus).

Results: After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use.

Conclusion: Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

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BSE deer. Vacuolation seen in the brainstem (a), the molecular layer of the cerebellum (b), the thalamus (c), and layers V and VI of the cerebral cortex (d).
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Figure 1: BSE deer. Vacuolation seen in the brainstem (a), the molecular layer of the cerebellum (b), the thalamus (c), and layers V and VI of the cerebral cortex (d).

Mentions: In haematoxylin and eosin stained brain sections, spongiform change was widespread in all seven deer that developed clinical signs after BSE challenge regardless of the route. Vacuolation was seen in the neuronal perikaryon and neuropil of the brainstem, the molecular layer of the cerebellum, the thalamus, and the layers V and VI of the cerebral cortex (Fig 1). Spongy change was also observed in the same brain areas of the CWD-challenged deer; in these, intracytoplasmic vacuoles within neurones, although present, were less prominent than in the BSE challenged group. Otherwise no differences in pathological features were identified between the two groups of deer. Overall, spongiform changes and their distribution were similar to those reported in cattle with BSE [21], in sheep orally infected with BSE [22], and in CWD infected mule deer and elk [23].


Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

Martin S, Jeffrey M, González L, Sisó S, Reid HW, Steele P, Dagleish MP, Stack MJ, Chaplin MJ, Balachandran A - BMC Vet. Res. (2009)

BSE deer. Vacuolation seen in the brainstem (a), the molecular layer of the cerebellum (b), the thalamus (c), and layers V and VI of the cerebral cortex (d).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724422&req=5

Figure 1: BSE deer. Vacuolation seen in the brainstem (a), the molecular layer of the cerebellum (b), the thalamus (c), and layers V and VI of the cerebral cortex (d).
Mentions: In haematoxylin and eosin stained brain sections, spongiform change was widespread in all seven deer that developed clinical signs after BSE challenge regardless of the route. Vacuolation was seen in the neuronal perikaryon and neuropil of the brainstem, the molecular layer of the cerebellum, the thalamus, and the layers V and VI of the cerebral cortex (Fig 1). Spongy change was also observed in the same brain areas of the CWD-challenged deer; in these, intracytoplasmic vacuoles within neurones, although present, were less prominent than in the BSE challenged group. Otherwise no differences in pathological features were identified between the two groups of deer. Overall, spongiform changes and their distribution were similar to those reported in cattle with BSE [21], in sheep orally infected with BSE [22], and in CWD infected mule deer and elk [23].

Bottom Line: Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations.After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues.Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA-Lasswade), Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, UK. s.f.martin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus).

Results: After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use.

Conclusion: Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus