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Substance P and beta-endorphin mediate electro-acupuncture induced analgesia in mouse cancer pain model.

Lee HJ, Lee JH, Lee EO, Lee HJ, Kim KH, Kim SH, Lee KS, Jung HJ, Kim SH - J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. (2009)

Bottom Line: Opioid analgesics are generally used to combat the pain associated with cancerous conditions.These agents not only inhibit respiratory function and cause constipation, but also induce other significant side effects such as addiction and tolerance, all of which further contribute to a reduced quality of life for cancer patients.It also indicated that EA treatment could be used as an alternative therapeutic method for cancer pain due to a consequent decrease in substance P and increase in beta-endorphin levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul 130-701, South Korea. strong79@khu.ac.kr

ABSTRACT

Background: Opioid analgesics are generally used to combat the pain associated with cancerous conditions. These agents not only inhibit respiratory function and cause constipation, but also induce other significant side effects such as addiction and tolerance, all of which further contribute to a reduced quality of life for cancer patients. Thus, in the present study, the effects of electro-acupuncture treatment (EA) on mechanical allodynia were examined in a cancer pain mouse model.

Methods: In order to produce a neuropathic cancer pain model, S-180 sarcoma cells were inoculated around the sciatic nerve of left legs of Balb/c mice. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanning confirmed the mass of S-180 cancer cells embedded around the sciatic nerve. Mechanical allodynia was most consistently induced in the mouse sarcoma cell line S-180 (2 x 10(6)sarcoma cells)-treated group compared to all the other groups studied. EA stimulation (2 Hz) was administered daily to ST36 (Zusanli) of S-180 bearing mice for 30 min for 9 days after S-180 inoculation.

Results: EA treatment significantly prolonged paw withdrawal latency from 5 days after inoculation. It also shortened the cumulative lifting duration from 7 days after inoculation, compared to the tumor control. Also, the overexpression of pain peptide substance P in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly decreased in the EA-treated group compared to the tumor control on Day 9 post inoculation. Furthermore, EA treatment effectively increased the concentration of beta-endorphin in blood and brain samples of the mice to a greater extent than that of the tumor control as well as the normal group. The concentration of beta-endorphin for EA treatment group increased by 51.457% in the blood and 12.6% in the brain respectively, compared to the tumor control group.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that a S-180 cancer pain model is useful as a consistent and short time animal model. It also indicated that EA treatment could be used as an alternative therapeutic method for cancer pain due to a consequent decrease in substance P and increase in beta-endorphin levels.

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A: EA treatment increased paw withdrawal latency compared to that of the untreated tumor control. Paw withdrawal latency was measured every 2 days until 9 days after inoculation. Statistically significant differences were obtained, in comparison to the normal control group using the student's t test (* p < 0.05). B: EA treatment reduced cumulative lifting duration of paw compared to untreated tumor control. Cumulative lifting duration of the left hind paws was measured every 2 days until 9 days after inoculation. Statistically significant differences were compared to the normal group using the student's t test (* p < 0.05).
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Figure 3: A: EA treatment increased paw withdrawal latency compared to that of the untreated tumor control. Paw withdrawal latency was measured every 2 days until 9 days after inoculation. Statistically significant differences were obtained, in comparison to the normal control group using the student's t test (* p < 0.05). B: EA treatment reduced cumulative lifting duration of paw compared to untreated tumor control. Cumulative lifting duration of the left hind paws was measured every 2 days until 9 days after inoculation. Statistically significant differences were compared to the normal group using the student's t test (* p < 0.05).

Mentions: EA treatment was applied to the EA group only. A stainless steel needle with 0.3 mm diameter was inserted at a depth of 5 mm into the unilateral acupuncture point ST36 (Zusanli) located 0.5 cm below the fibular head of the hinder leg in mice and stimulated with an intensity of 2 Hz (<3 mA) for 30 min daily. The levels of EA treatment were based on values previously reported [10,17]. The proximal end was soldered to a wire that was connected to one of the output channels of an electric stimulator, PG-306 (YoungMok, Japan). As shown Fig. 3, the ST36 (Zusanli) acupoint was located 5 mm below and lateral to the anterior tubercle of the tibia. Electrical stimulation was applied to ST36 point using two outlets via two needles. An electrical pulse with a voltage of 3–5 V, a duration of 0.25 ms and a frequency of 2 Hz was delivered from an EA stimulator. The intensity of stimulation was determined to be minimum voltage to cause moderate muscle contraction.


Substance P and beta-endorphin mediate electro-acupuncture induced analgesia in mouse cancer pain model.

Lee HJ, Lee JH, Lee EO, Lee HJ, Kim KH, Kim SH, Lee KS, Jung HJ, Kim SH - J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. (2009)

A: EA treatment increased paw withdrawal latency compared to that of the untreated tumor control. Paw withdrawal latency was measured every 2 days until 9 days after inoculation. Statistically significant differences were obtained, in comparison to the normal control group using the student's t test (* p < 0.05). B: EA treatment reduced cumulative lifting duration of paw compared to untreated tumor control. Cumulative lifting duration of the left hind paws was measured every 2 days until 9 days after inoculation. Statistically significant differences were compared to the normal group using the student's t test (* p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724388&req=5

Figure 3: A: EA treatment increased paw withdrawal latency compared to that of the untreated tumor control. Paw withdrawal latency was measured every 2 days until 9 days after inoculation. Statistically significant differences were obtained, in comparison to the normal control group using the student's t test (* p < 0.05). B: EA treatment reduced cumulative lifting duration of paw compared to untreated tumor control. Cumulative lifting duration of the left hind paws was measured every 2 days until 9 days after inoculation. Statistically significant differences were compared to the normal group using the student's t test (* p < 0.05).
Mentions: EA treatment was applied to the EA group only. A stainless steel needle with 0.3 mm diameter was inserted at a depth of 5 mm into the unilateral acupuncture point ST36 (Zusanli) located 0.5 cm below the fibular head of the hinder leg in mice and stimulated with an intensity of 2 Hz (<3 mA) for 30 min daily. The levels of EA treatment were based on values previously reported [10,17]. The proximal end was soldered to a wire that was connected to one of the output channels of an electric stimulator, PG-306 (YoungMok, Japan). As shown Fig. 3, the ST36 (Zusanli) acupoint was located 5 mm below and lateral to the anterior tubercle of the tibia. Electrical stimulation was applied to ST36 point using two outlets via two needles. An electrical pulse with a voltage of 3–5 V, a duration of 0.25 ms and a frequency of 2 Hz was delivered from an EA stimulator. The intensity of stimulation was determined to be minimum voltage to cause moderate muscle contraction.

Bottom Line: Opioid analgesics are generally used to combat the pain associated with cancerous conditions.These agents not only inhibit respiratory function and cause constipation, but also induce other significant side effects such as addiction and tolerance, all of which further contribute to a reduced quality of life for cancer patients.It also indicated that EA treatment could be used as an alternative therapeutic method for cancer pain due to a consequent decrease in substance P and increase in beta-endorphin levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul 130-701, South Korea. strong79@khu.ac.kr

ABSTRACT

Background: Opioid analgesics are generally used to combat the pain associated with cancerous conditions. These agents not only inhibit respiratory function and cause constipation, but also induce other significant side effects such as addiction and tolerance, all of which further contribute to a reduced quality of life for cancer patients. Thus, in the present study, the effects of electro-acupuncture treatment (EA) on mechanical allodynia were examined in a cancer pain mouse model.

Methods: In order to produce a neuropathic cancer pain model, S-180 sarcoma cells were inoculated around the sciatic nerve of left legs of Balb/c mice. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanning confirmed the mass of S-180 cancer cells embedded around the sciatic nerve. Mechanical allodynia was most consistently induced in the mouse sarcoma cell line S-180 (2 x 10(6)sarcoma cells)-treated group compared to all the other groups studied. EA stimulation (2 Hz) was administered daily to ST36 (Zusanli) of S-180 bearing mice for 30 min for 9 days after S-180 inoculation.

Results: EA treatment significantly prolonged paw withdrawal latency from 5 days after inoculation. It also shortened the cumulative lifting duration from 7 days after inoculation, compared to the tumor control. Also, the overexpression of pain peptide substance P in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly decreased in the EA-treated group compared to the tumor control on Day 9 post inoculation. Furthermore, EA treatment effectively increased the concentration of beta-endorphin in blood and brain samples of the mice to a greater extent than that of the tumor control as well as the normal group. The concentration of beta-endorphin for EA treatment group increased by 51.457% in the blood and 12.6% in the brain respectively, compared to the tumor control group.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that a S-180 cancer pain model is useful as a consistent and short time animal model. It also indicated that EA treatment could be used as an alternative therapeutic method for cancer pain due to a consequent decrease in substance P and increase in beta-endorphin levels.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus