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The saccadic Stroop effect: Evidence for involuntary programming of eye movements by linguistic cues.

Hodgson TL, Parris BA, Gregory NJ, Jarvis T - Vision Res. (2009)

Bottom Line: The effect of automatic priming of behaviour by linguistic cues is well established.However, as yet these effects have not been directly demonstrated for eye movement responses.The results showed that oculomotor programming was influenced by word identity, even though the written word provided no task relevant information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Devon EX4 4QG, UK. t.l.hodgson@exeter.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
The effect of automatic priming of behaviour by linguistic cues is well established. However, as yet these effects have not been directly demonstrated for eye movement responses. We investigated the effect of linguistic cues on eye movements using a modified version of the Stroop task in which a saccade was made to the location of a peripheral colour patch which matched the "ink" colour of a centrally presented word cue. The words were either colour words ("red", "green", "blue", "yellow") or location words ("up", "down", "left", "right"). As in the original version of the Stroop task the identity of the word could be either congruent or incongruent with the response location. The results showed that oculomotor programming was influenced by word identity, even though the written word provided no task relevant information. Saccade latency was increased on incongruent trials and an increased frequency of error saccades was observed in the direction congruent with the word identity. The results argue against traditional distinctions between reflexive and voluntary programming of saccades and suggest that linguistic cues can also influence eye movement programming in an automatic manner.

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Frequency histogram for inter-saccade intervals between error saccades and subsequent corrective movements, showing percentage of corrections occurring in each 50 ms time bin following the end of the primary (errorneous) saccade.
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fig4: Frequency histogram for inter-saccade intervals between error saccades and subsequent corrective movements, showing percentage of corrections occurring in each 50 ms time bin following the end of the primary (errorneous) saccade.

Mentions: On a given incongruent error trial the mean probability of the primary saccade being directed towards a location unrelated to the cue word was 0.17, whereas the probability of an error being directed to the location congruent with the cue word identity was 0.67 (compared to the expected probability of 0.33 for both location types). An ANOVA contrasting the probability of an error being directed towards locations which were either congruent or incongruent with the Colour/Location word conditions revealed a significant bias towards the location congruent with the word identity across subjects (F(1, 9) = 7.651, p = 0.022). Importantly, actual decision errors where subjects failed to correctly fixate the correct colour patch at the end of the trial never occurred. Saccades directed to an incorrect location were always followed by secondary movements towards the correct colour patch, indicating that all subjects correctly understood the task (see Fig. 3). The frequency distribution of inter-saccade intervals following errors is shown in Fig. 4, showing that the many errors were followed by corrective saccades within 100 ms of the end of the primary saccade. Finally, we examined the relationship between the inter-saccade interval and the amplitude of the primary saccade. Although a trend was observed towards shorter inter-saccade interval errors to be preceded by smaller amplitude saccades in some participants, this effect was not found to be consistent across individuals and was not statistically significant (Pearson correlation coefficient amplitude versus inter-saccade interval = 0.032).


The saccadic Stroop effect: Evidence for involuntary programming of eye movements by linguistic cues.

Hodgson TL, Parris BA, Gregory NJ, Jarvis T - Vision Res. (2009)

Frequency histogram for inter-saccade intervals between error saccades and subsequent corrective movements, showing percentage of corrections occurring in each 50 ms time bin following the end of the primary (errorneous) saccade.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724027&req=5

fig4: Frequency histogram for inter-saccade intervals between error saccades and subsequent corrective movements, showing percentage of corrections occurring in each 50 ms time bin following the end of the primary (errorneous) saccade.
Mentions: On a given incongruent error trial the mean probability of the primary saccade being directed towards a location unrelated to the cue word was 0.17, whereas the probability of an error being directed to the location congruent with the cue word identity was 0.67 (compared to the expected probability of 0.33 for both location types). An ANOVA contrasting the probability of an error being directed towards locations which were either congruent or incongruent with the Colour/Location word conditions revealed a significant bias towards the location congruent with the word identity across subjects (F(1, 9) = 7.651, p = 0.022). Importantly, actual decision errors where subjects failed to correctly fixate the correct colour patch at the end of the trial never occurred. Saccades directed to an incorrect location were always followed by secondary movements towards the correct colour patch, indicating that all subjects correctly understood the task (see Fig. 3). The frequency distribution of inter-saccade intervals following errors is shown in Fig. 4, showing that the many errors were followed by corrective saccades within 100 ms of the end of the primary saccade. Finally, we examined the relationship between the inter-saccade interval and the amplitude of the primary saccade. Although a trend was observed towards shorter inter-saccade interval errors to be preceded by smaller amplitude saccades in some participants, this effect was not found to be consistent across individuals and was not statistically significant (Pearson correlation coefficient amplitude versus inter-saccade interval = 0.032).

Bottom Line: The effect of automatic priming of behaviour by linguistic cues is well established.However, as yet these effects have not been directly demonstrated for eye movement responses.The results showed that oculomotor programming was influenced by word identity, even though the written word provided no task relevant information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Devon EX4 4QG, UK. t.l.hodgson@exeter.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
The effect of automatic priming of behaviour by linguistic cues is well established. However, as yet these effects have not been directly demonstrated for eye movement responses. We investigated the effect of linguistic cues on eye movements using a modified version of the Stroop task in which a saccade was made to the location of a peripheral colour patch which matched the "ink" colour of a centrally presented word cue. The words were either colour words ("red", "green", "blue", "yellow") or location words ("up", "down", "left", "right"). As in the original version of the Stroop task the identity of the word could be either congruent or incongruent with the response location. The results showed that oculomotor programming was influenced by word identity, even though the written word provided no task relevant information. Saccade latency was increased on incongruent trials and an increased frequency of error saccades was observed in the direction congruent with the word identity. The results argue against traditional distinctions between reflexive and voluntary programming of saccades and suggest that linguistic cues can also influence eye movement programming in an automatic manner.

Show MeSH