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The saccadic Stroop effect: Evidence for involuntary programming of eye movements by linguistic cues.

Hodgson TL, Parris BA, Gregory NJ, Jarvis T - Vision Res. (2009)

Bottom Line: The effect of automatic priming of behaviour by linguistic cues is well established.However, as yet these effects have not been directly demonstrated for eye movement responses.The results showed that oculomotor programming was influenced by word identity, even though the written word provided no task relevant information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Devon EX4 4QG, UK. t.l.hodgson@exeter.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
The effect of automatic priming of behaviour by linguistic cues is well established. However, as yet these effects have not been directly demonstrated for eye movement responses. We investigated the effect of linguistic cues on eye movements using a modified version of the Stroop task in which a saccade was made to the location of a peripheral colour patch which matched the "ink" colour of a centrally presented word cue. The words were either colour words ("red", "green", "blue", "yellow") or location words ("up", "down", "left", "right"). As in the original version of the Stroop task the identity of the word could be either congruent or incongruent with the response location. The results showed that oculomotor programming was influenced by word identity, even though the written word provided no task relevant information. Saccade latency was increased on incongruent trials and an increased frequency of error saccades was observed in the direction congruent with the word identity. The results argue against traditional distinctions between reflexive and voluntary programming of saccades and suggest that linguistic cues can also influence eye movement programming in an automatic manner.

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Inter-subject mean response times and error rates with standard error bars for both Colour Word and Location Word conditions.
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fig2: Inter-subject mean response times and error rates with standard error bars for both Colour Word and Location Word conditions.

Mentions: The mean latency of response of the first saccade following onset of the word cue and response array (i.e. reaction time) were analysed across subjects using a 2 way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with word type (Colour Word/Direction Word) and trial type (Incongruent, Congruent, Neutral) as factors. This analysis showed a significant effect of trial type (F(2, 18) = 5.29, p = 0.016), but no main effect of word type (F(1, 9) = 0.973). Reaction times were increased for control trials relative to trials where the word was congruent with target location, with incongruent cue trials showing the longest mean reaction times across subjects. Although mean response times indicated that the congruency effect was larger in the Colour Word condition, the interaction effect between word type and trial type did not reach significance (F(2, 18) = 0.43) (Fig. 2). Direct means comparisons between conditions revealed a significant difference between congruent and incongruent trial latencies (repeated measures t-test: t = 2.43, d.f. 9, p < 0.05) and marginally significant differences between congruent versus neutral (t = 1.87, p = 0.09) and neutral versus incongruent (t = 1.89, p = 0.09) trial latencies across subjects


The saccadic Stroop effect: Evidence for involuntary programming of eye movements by linguistic cues.

Hodgson TL, Parris BA, Gregory NJ, Jarvis T - Vision Res. (2009)

Inter-subject mean response times and error rates with standard error bars for both Colour Word and Location Word conditions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2724027&req=5

fig2: Inter-subject mean response times and error rates with standard error bars for both Colour Word and Location Word conditions.
Mentions: The mean latency of response of the first saccade following onset of the word cue and response array (i.e. reaction time) were analysed across subjects using a 2 way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with word type (Colour Word/Direction Word) and trial type (Incongruent, Congruent, Neutral) as factors. This analysis showed a significant effect of trial type (F(2, 18) = 5.29, p = 0.016), but no main effect of word type (F(1, 9) = 0.973). Reaction times were increased for control trials relative to trials where the word was congruent with target location, with incongruent cue trials showing the longest mean reaction times across subjects. Although mean response times indicated that the congruency effect was larger in the Colour Word condition, the interaction effect between word type and trial type did not reach significance (F(2, 18) = 0.43) (Fig. 2). Direct means comparisons between conditions revealed a significant difference between congruent and incongruent trial latencies (repeated measures t-test: t = 2.43, d.f. 9, p < 0.05) and marginally significant differences between congruent versus neutral (t = 1.87, p = 0.09) and neutral versus incongruent (t = 1.89, p = 0.09) trial latencies across subjects

Bottom Line: The effect of automatic priming of behaviour by linguistic cues is well established.However, as yet these effects have not been directly demonstrated for eye movement responses.The results showed that oculomotor programming was influenced by word identity, even though the written word provided no task relevant information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Devon EX4 4QG, UK. t.l.hodgson@exeter.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
The effect of automatic priming of behaviour by linguistic cues is well established. However, as yet these effects have not been directly demonstrated for eye movement responses. We investigated the effect of linguistic cues on eye movements using a modified version of the Stroop task in which a saccade was made to the location of a peripheral colour patch which matched the "ink" colour of a centrally presented word cue. The words were either colour words ("red", "green", "blue", "yellow") or location words ("up", "down", "left", "right"). As in the original version of the Stroop task the identity of the word could be either congruent or incongruent with the response location. The results showed that oculomotor programming was influenced by word identity, even though the written word provided no task relevant information. Saccade latency was increased on incongruent trials and an increased frequency of error saccades was observed in the direction congruent with the word identity. The results argue against traditional distinctions between reflexive and voluntary programming of saccades and suggest that linguistic cues can also influence eye movement programming in an automatic manner.

Show MeSH