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Adhesion molecule-modified biomaterials for neural tissue engineering.

Rao SS, Winter JO - Front Neuroeng (2009)

Bottom Line: These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment.Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering.Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University Columbus, OH, USA.

ABSTRACT
Adhesion molecules (AMs) represent one class of biomolecules that promote central nervous system regeneration. These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment. Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering. This review discusses common AMs used in neural biomaterials and the mechanism of cell attachment to these AMs. Methods to modify materials with AMs are discussed and compared. Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Adapted from (Hermanson, 1996).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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S1: Adapted from (Hermanson, 1996).

Mentions: Chemical modification mediated by thiol (–SH) groups involves the reaction of a sulfhydryl compound with a maleimide derivative to form a thioether bond (Scheme 1) (Hermanson, 1996). This route has been used by the Shoichet group (Yu et al., 2007) to conjugate cell adhesion peptides CDPGYIGSR and GQASSIKVAV (both laminin derived) to thiolated methacrylamide chitosan scaffolds. Other approaches employing similar chemistry use heterofunctional crosslinkers to conjugate AMs to biomaterials. Intermediary crosslinkers are generally preferred to direct biomolecule conjugation because the crosslinker separates the biomolecule from the biomaterial, reducing steric hindrance and preserving the conformation of the protein or peptide. The choice of the cross-linking agent is dependent on application. For example, for in vivo use, a cross linker that minimizes immune response should be chosen. One commonly examined –SH active crosslinker is sulfo-SMCC [sulfo-succinimidyl-4-(N-maleinidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate] (Scheme 2), which has an amine-reactive NHS ester as well as a thiol reactive maleimide.


Adhesion molecule-modified biomaterials for neural tissue engineering.

Rao SS, Winter JO - Front Neuroeng (2009)

Adapted from (Hermanson, 1996).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2723915&req=5

S1: Adapted from (Hermanson, 1996).
Mentions: Chemical modification mediated by thiol (–SH) groups involves the reaction of a sulfhydryl compound with a maleimide derivative to form a thioether bond (Scheme 1) (Hermanson, 1996). This route has been used by the Shoichet group (Yu et al., 2007) to conjugate cell adhesion peptides CDPGYIGSR and GQASSIKVAV (both laminin derived) to thiolated methacrylamide chitosan scaffolds. Other approaches employing similar chemistry use heterofunctional crosslinkers to conjugate AMs to biomaterials. Intermediary crosslinkers are generally preferred to direct biomolecule conjugation because the crosslinker separates the biomolecule from the biomaterial, reducing steric hindrance and preserving the conformation of the protein or peptide. The choice of the cross-linking agent is dependent on application. For example, for in vivo use, a cross linker that minimizes immune response should be chosen. One commonly examined –SH active crosslinker is sulfo-SMCC [sulfo-succinimidyl-4-(N-maleinidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate] (Scheme 2), which has an amine-reactive NHS ester as well as a thiol reactive maleimide.

Bottom Line: These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment.Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering.Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University Columbus, OH, USA.

ABSTRACT
Adhesion molecules (AMs) represent one class of biomolecules that promote central nervous system regeneration. These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment. Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering. This review discusses common AMs used in neural biomaterials and the mechanism of cell attachment to these AMs. Methods to modify materials with AMs are discussed and compared. Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus