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Adhesion molecule-modified biomaterials for neural tissue engineering.

Rao SS, Winter JO - Front Neuroeng (2009)

Bottom Line: These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment.Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering.Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University Columbus, OH, USA.

ABSTRACT
Adhesion molecules (AMs) represent one class of biomolecules that promote central nervous system regeneration. These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment. Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering. This review discusses common AMs used in neural biomaterials and the mechanism of cell attachment to these AMs. Methods to modify materials with AMs are discussed and compared. Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Electrochemical polymerization. (Figure courtesy of Nathalie Guimard and Dr. Christine Schmidt, The University of Texas at Austin.)
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Figure 5: Electrochemical polymerization. (Figure courtesy of Nathalie Guimard and Dr. Christine Schmidt, The University of Texas at Austin.)

Mentions: Electrically conducting polymers consist of charged crystalline to semi-crystalline polymer chains that are doped with ions of the opposite charge. Dopants serve to balance the charge of the conducting polymer to produce a neutral composite. Charged AMs can be incorporated into electrically conducting polymers as dopants using electrochemical polymerization (Figure 5) (Guimard et al., 2007). For example, a neutral polymer such as Ppy develops a positive charge following oxidation and can be coupled with negatively charged AMs during electrochemical polymerization. In this process, a three electrode system is typically employed. The apparatus consists of a working electrode (where the films deposited, usually Si for neural probes, ITO for other applications), a counter electrode (e.g., platinum) and a reference electrode (e.g., calomel electrode) in a liquid solution of monomer and dopant in a suitable solvent. Applying electric current to the system produces conducting polymer/AM film deposition on the working electrode surface. Polymer monomers undergo oxidation at anodic sites forming cations that can bind negatively charged dopants (e.g., AMs). The resulting composite thus has a net charge of zero. Film thickness is controlled by the amount of charge that passes through the electrode system. Parameters that can influence film topography and conductivity include deposition time, temperature, electrode system, and choice of solvent. The technique is straightforward and attractive because doping of AM and polymerization proceed simultaneously. Also, extremely thin films (∼20 nm) can be prepared.


Adhesion molecule-modified biomaterials for neural tissue engineering.

Rao SS, Winter JO - Front Neuroeng (2009)

Electrochemical polymerization. (Figure courtesy of Nathalie Guimard and Dr. Christine Schmidt, The University of Texas at Austin.)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2723915&req=5

Figure 5: Electrochemical polymerization. (Figure courtesy of Nathalie Guimard and Dr. Christine Schmidt, The University of Texas at Austin.)
Mentions: Electrically conducting polymers consist of charged crystalline to semi-crystalline polymer chains that are doped with ions of the opposite charge. Dopants serve to balance the charge of the conducting polymer to produce a neutral composite. Charged AMs can be incorporated into electrically conducting polymers as dopants using electrochemical polymerization (Figure 5) (Guimard et al., 2007). For example, a neutral polymer such as Ppy develops a positive charge following oxidation and can be coupled with negatively charged AMs during electrochemical polymerization. In this process, a three electrode system is typically employed. The apparatus consists of a working electrode (where the films deposited, usually Si for neural probes, ITO for other applications), a counter electrode (e.g., platinum) and a reference electrode (e.g., calomel electrode) in a liquid solution of monomer and dopant in a suitable solvent. Applying electric current to the system produces conducting polymer/AM film deposition on the working electrode surface. Polymer monomers undergo oxidation at anodic sites forming cations that can bind negatively charged dopants (e.g., AMs). The resulting composite thus has a net charge of zero. Film thickness is controlled by the amount of charge that passes through the electrode system. Parameters that can influence film topography and conductivity include deposition time, temperature, electrode system, and choice of solvent. The technique is straightforward and attractive because doping of AM and polymerization proceed simultaneously. Also, extremely thin films (∼20 nm) can be prepared.

Bottom Line: These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment.Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering.Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University Columbus, OH, USA.

ABSTRACT
Adhesion molecules (AMs) represent one class of biomolecules that promote central nervous system regeneration. These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment. Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering. This review discusses common AMs used in neural biomaterials and the mechanism of cell attachment to these AMs. Methods to modify materials with AMs are discussed and compared. Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus