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Adhesion molecule-modified biomaterials for neural tissue engineering.

Rao SS, Winter JO - Front Neuroeng (2009)

Bottom Line: These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment.Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering.Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University Columbus, OH, USA.

ABSTRACT
Adhesion molecules (AMs) represent one class of biomolecules that promote central nervous system regeneration. These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment. Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering. This review discusses common AMs used in neural biomaterials and the mechanism of cell attachment to these AMs. Methods to modify materials with AMs are discussed and compared. Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Non-receptor-mediated cell binding.
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Figure 2: Non-receptor-mediated cell binding.

Mentions: In addition to natural biomolecules and peptides, some non-native proteins/peptides have been shown to promote neural adhesion. For example, polylysine, a polypeptide comprised of lysine sequences, enhances neural adhesion, proliferation, and neurite extension (Yavin and Yavin, 1974). Polylysine modulates cell adhesion via a non-receptor-mediated cell binding mechanism (Figure 2). Positive charges on polylysine attract the negatively charged cell membrane resulting in electrostatic bond formation (Yavin and Yavin, 1974). The negative charge on the cell membrane results from the glycocalyx, which is composed of short oligosaccharide chains containing a large number of sialic acid residues (Lauffenburger and Linderman, 1996). It is believed that free polylysine amino groups (Yavin and Yavin, 1974), which produce a monopolar basic surface (Harnett et al., 2007), are necessary for cell adhesion and that adhesion is energy dependant (Yavin and Yavin, 1974) (i.e., adhesion is drastically affected when cultures are exposed to inhibitors of respiration such as cyanide binding reagents). Adhesion is also temperature dependent indicating an affiliation with endocytotic metabolic pathways. Upon binding, polylysine produces a charge-induced redistribution of molecules in the cell membrane, resulting in a ‘cell-polylysine interaction’ similar to the ligand-receptor-mediated interaction (Rainaldi et al., 1998). Polylysine may also enhance attachment indirectly, by promoting the adsorption of medium proteins (Heggins and Banker, 1998). After the initial, polylysine-induced binding; cells secrete ECM, which is used to initiate mechanotransduction processes described above. It should be noted that cells unable to secrete ECM cannot sustain binding through this mechanism and undergo apoptosis (Bacakova et al., 2004).


Adhesion molecule-modified biomaterials for neural tissue engineering.

Rao SS, Winter JO - Front Neuroeng (2009)

Non-receptor-mediated cell binding.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2723915&req=5

Figure 2: Non-receptor-mediated cell binding.
Mentions: In addition to natural biomolecules and peptides, some non-native proteins/peptides have been shown to promote neural adhesion. For example, polylysine, a polypeptide comprised of lysine sequences, enhances neural adhesion, proliferation, and neurite extension (Yavin and Yavin, 1974). Polylysine modulates cell adhesion via a non-receptor-mediated cell binding mechanism (Figure 2). Positive charges on polylysine attract the negatively charged cell membrane resulting in electrostatic bond formation (Yavin and Yavin, 1974). The negative charge on the cell membrane results from the glycocalyx, which is composed of short oligosaccharide chains containing a large number of sialic acid residues (Lauffenburger and Linderman, 1996). It is believed that free polylysine amino groups (Yavin and Yavin, 1974), which produce a monopolar basic surface (Harnett et al., 2007), are necessary for cell adhesion and that adhesion is energy dependant (Yavin and Yavin, 1974) (i.e., adhesion is drastically affected when cultures are exposed to inhibitors of respiration such as cyanide binding reagents). Adhesion is also temperature dependent indicating an affiliation with endocytotic metabolic pathways. Upon binding, polylysine produces a charge-induced redistribution of molecules in the cell membrane, resulting in a ‘cell-polylysine interaction’ similar to the ligand-receptor-mediated interaction (Rainaldi et al., 1998). Polylysine may also enhance attachment indirectly, by promoting the adsorption of medium proteins (Heggins and Banker, 1998). After the initial, polylysine-induced binding; cells secrete ECM, which is used to initiate mechanotransduction processes described above. It should be noted that cells unable to secrete ECM cannot sustain binding through this mechanism and undergo apoptosis (Bacakova et al., 2004).

Bottom Line: These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment.Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering.Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University Columbus, OH, USA.

ABSTRACT
Adhesion molecules (AMs) represent one class of biomolecules that promote central nervous system regeneration. These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment. Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering. This review discusses common AMs used in neural biomaterials and the mechanism of cell attachment to these AMs. Methods to modify materials with AMs are discussed and compared. Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus