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Evaluating Complementary Therapies for Canine Osteoarthritis Part I: Green-lipped Mussel (Perna canaliculus).

Hielm-Björkman A, Tulamo RM, Salonen H, Raekallio M - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2007)

Bottom Line: For the same three, the odds ratio and their confidence interval were over one.The extent of improvement was significantly different between the GLM and the control in veterinary-assessed mobility (P = 0.012) and pain VAS (P = 0.004).In conclusion, GLM alleviated chronic orthopedic pain in dogs although it was not as effective as carprofen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, University of Helsinki, PO Box 57, FI-00014, Finland. anna.hielm-bjorkman@helsinki.fi.

ABSTRACT
A green-lipped mussel (GLM) preparation was evaluated in a randomized, double-controlled and double-blinded clinical trial. It was hypothesized that the treatment effect would be less than that of the positive control (carprofen) but more than that of the negative control (placebo). Forty-five dogs with chronic pain and a radiographic diagnosis of osteoarthritis that were randomly allocated into one of three groups completed the study. All dogs were fed the test products or placebo for 8 weeks. The dogs were evaluated four times, at 4-week intervals. Six different variables were assessed: veterinary-assessed mobility index, two force plate variables, owner-evaluated chronic pain index and pain as well as locomotion visual analogue scales (VASs). Intake of extra carprofen was also evaluated. A chi-squared and a Mann-Whitney test were used to determine significance between groups. When changed to dichotomous variables, there were more dogs in the GLM than in the placebo group that improved, according to veterinary-assessed mobility, owner-evaluated chronic pain index and pain VAS (P = 0.031, P = 0.025, P = 0.011, respectively). For the same three, the odds ratio and their confidence interval were over one. The extent of improvement was significantly different between the GLM and the control in veterinary-assessed mobility (P = 0.012) and pain VAS (P = 0.004). In conclusion, GLM alleviated chronic orthopedic pain in dogs although it was not as effective as carprofen. As no side-effects were detected, GLM may be beneficial in dogs e.g. when non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cannot be used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Main active constituents of the green lipped mussel and their effect on the inflammation pathways of osteoarthritis. The main active constituents, according to how we understand their working mechanisms now: The Omega-3 PUFAs (especially the ETAs) have anti-inflammatory activity; they possess significant cyclo-oxygenase (COX 1 and 2) and lipoxygenase (LOX-5) inhibitory activity. Due to their glycosaminoglycan content (especially chondroitin sulphate with its high glucosamine content), the GLM may have chondroprotective properties. The vitamins and minerals are needed in cartilage anabolism. GLM, green-lipped mussel; Th, T helper cell; IL, interleukin; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.
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Figure 2: Main active constituents of the green lipped mussel and their effect on the inflammation pathways of osteoarthritis. The main active constituents, according to how we understand their working mechanisms now: The Omega-3 PUFAs (especially the ETAs) have anti-inflammatory activity; they possess significant cyclo-oxygenase (COX 1 and 2) and lipoxygenase (LOX-5) inhibitory activity. Due to their glycosaminoglycan content (especially chondroitin sulphate with its high glucosamine content), the GLM may have chondroprotective properties. The vitamins and minerals are needed in cartilage anabolism. GLM, green-lipped mussel; Th, T helper cell; IL, interleukin; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.

Mentions: This positive outcome opens a discussion about possible working mechanisms of the GLM (Fig. 2). In the early GLM clinical trials on human patients, the outcomes were not good and often contradictory (23,24). Twenty years later, possibly after having stabilized the product by freeze-drying and lyophilizing, the results of clinical trials for GLM have been significantly promising (9–12). The lyophilizing process might have been the more important as in fact, the difference in lipid, sterol or fatty acid composition of frozen and freeze-dried GLM has been shown to be non-existent; the only major difference was between total lipid composition on a dry weight basis because of the removal of water in the deep-frozen product (25). The potent anti-inflammatory activity of GLM powder was confirmed in vivo using the established rat paw oedema model; rats fed mussel lipids perorally developed neither adjuvant-induced polyarthritis nor collagen-induced auto-allergic arthritis (8). However, these lipids showed only marginal inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats (acute irritation assay, which is the standard test for NSAIDs), indicating that they do not mimic rapid-acting NSAIDs (8,13). Macrides and others (7) found that the ETAs of GLM had considerable anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro, the extracted lipids have been shown to possess significant cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX-5) inhibitory activity; hence, the GLM seems to be working on the same mechanisms as newer NSAIDs (8).Figure 2.


Evaluating Complementary Therapies for Canine Osteoarthritis Part I: Green-lipped Mussel (Perna canaliculus).

Hielm-Björkman A, Tulamo RM, Salonen H, Raekallio M - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2007)

Main active constituents of the green lipped mussel and their effect on the inflammation pathways of osteoarthritis. The main active constituents, according to how we understand their working mechanisms now: The Omega-3 PUFAs (especially the ETAs) have anti-inflammatory activity; they possess significant cyclo-oxygenase (COX 1 and 2) and lipoxygenase (LOX-5) inhibitory activity. Due to their glycosaminoglycan content (especially chondroitin sulphate with its high glucosamine content), the GLM may have chondroprotective properties. The vitamins and minerals are needed in cartilage anabolism. GLM, green-lipped mussel; Th, T helper cell; IL, interleukin; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2722199&req=5

Figure 2: Main active constituents of the green lipped mussel and their effect on the inflammation pathways of osteoarthritis. The main active constituents, according to how we understand their working mechanisms now: The Omega-3 PUFAs (especially the ETAs) have anti-inflammatory activity; they possess significant cyclo-oxygenase (COX 1 and 2) and lipoxygenase (LOX-5) inhibitory activity. Due to their glycosaminoglycan content (especially chondroitin sulphate with its high glucosamine content), the GLM may have chondroprotective properties. The vitamins and minerals are needed in cartilage anabolism. GLM, green-lipped mussel; Th, T helper cell; IL, interleukin; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.
Mentions: This positive outcome opens a discussion about possible working mechanisms of the GLM (Fig. 2). In the early GLM clinical trials on human patients, the outcomes were not good and often contradictory (23,24). Twenty years later, possibly after having stabilized the product by freeze-drying and lyophilizing, the results of clinical trials for GLM have been significantly promising (9–12). The lyophilizing process might have been the more important as in fact, the difference in lipid, sterol or fatty acid composition of frozen and freeze-dried GLM has been shown to be non-existent; the only major difference was between total lipid composition on a dry weight basis because of the removal of water in the deep-frozen product (25). The potent anti-inflammatory activity of GLM powder was confirmed in vivo using the established rat paw oedema model; rats fed mussel lipids perorally developed neither adjuvant-induced polyarthritis nor collagen-induced auto-allergic arthritis (8). However, these lipids showed only marginal inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats (acute irritation assay, which is the standard test for NSAIDs), indicating that they do not mimic rapid-acting NSAIDs (8,13). Macrides and others (7) found that the ETAs of GLM had considerable anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro, the extracted lipids have been shown to possess significant cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX-5) inhibitory activity; hence, the GLM seems to be working on the same mechanisms as newer NSAIDs (8).Figure 2.

Bottom Line: For the same three, the odds ratio and their confidence interval were over one.The extent of improvement was significantly different between the GLM and the control in veterinary-assessed mobility (P = 0.012) and pain VAS (P = 0.004).In conclusion, GLM alleviated chronic orthopedic pain in dogs although it was not as effective as carprofen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, University of Helsinki, PO Box 57, FI-00014, Finland. anna.hielm-bjorkman@helsinki.fi.

ABSTRACT
A green-lipped mussel (GLM) preparation was evaluated in a randomized, double-controlled and double-blinded clinical trial. It was hypothesized that the treatment effect would be less than that of the positive control (carprofen) but more than that of the negative control (placebo). Forty-five dogs with chronic pain and a radiographic diagnosis of osteoarthritis that were randomly allocated into one of three groups completed the study. All dogs were fed the test products or placebo for 8 weeks. The dogs were evaluated four times, at 4-week intervals. Six different variables were assessed: veterinary-assessed mobility index, two force plate variables, owner-evaluated chronic pain index and pain as well as locomotion visual analogue scales (VASs). Intake of extra carprofen was also evaluated. A chi-squared and a Mann-Whitney test were used to determine significance between groups. When changed to dichotomous variables, there were more dogs in the GLM than in the placebo group that improved, according to veterinary-assessed mobility, owner-evaluated chronic pain index and pain VAS (P = 0.031, P = 0.025, P = 0.011, respectively). For the same three, the odds ratio and their confidence interval were over one. The extent of improvement was significantly different between the GLM and the control in veterinary-assessed mobility (P = 0.012) and pain VAS (P = 0.004). In conclusion, GLM alleviated chronic orthopedic pain in dogs although it was not as effective as carprofen. As no side-effects were detected, GLM may be beneficial in dogs e.g. when non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cannot be used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus