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A comparative neuroanatomical study of the red nucleus of the cat, macaque and human.

Onodera S, Hicks TP - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex.The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan. sonodera@iwate-med.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: The human red nucleus (Nr) is comparatively less well-studied than that of cats or monkeys. Given the functional importance of reticular and midbrain structures in control of movement and locomotion as well as from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated the nature and extent of any differences in Nr projections to the olivary complex in quadrupedal and bipedal species. Using neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques we developed a "neural sheet" hypothesis allowing us to propose how rubro-olivary relations differ among the three species.

Methods and findings: Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase staining supports findings that the cat's nucleus accessories medialis of Bechtrew (NB) projects mainly to the lateral bend of the principal olive. We clarified boundaries among nucleus of Darkschewitsch (ND), NB and parvicellular red nucleus (pNr) of the cat's neural sheet. The macaque's ND-medial accessory olivary projection is rostro-caudally organized and the dorsomedial and ventrolateral parts of the macaque's pNr may project to the principal olive's rostral and caudal dorsal lamella; in cat it projects as well to pNr. Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.

Conclusions: Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex. We propose the Nr of cats and monkeys comprise the ND, NB and pNr in a zonal sheet-like structure, retaining clear nuclear boundaries and an isolated, well-developed mNr. The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray. Phylogenetically, the NB may have been translocated into a roll-shaped Nr in the reticular formation, the dorsomedial portion of which might correspond to the cat's and monkey's NB.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Human red nucleus and its surrounding structures.Upper photomicrographs (A-H) showing distribution of myelinated fiber bundles stained by myelin stain in the human mesodiencephalic structure of successive serial sections. Section A is the most rostral. The human NB is the dorsomedial cell-rich area of the red nucleus. Scale bar = 500 µm in H (also applies to A–G). Lower scale drawing showing the distribution of Nissl-stained cells found in the human mesodiencephalic structure as indicated by dots in the drawings of 15 successive serial sections. Section 1 is the most rostral. Sections 13 and 14 show giant mNr cells as large dots indicated by arrowheads. The number in the left corner of each photomicrograph and drawing is the rostrocaudal distance (in micrometers) from the rostral tip of the red nucleus. (A) – (H) correspond to Figs. 11A–H. CTT–central tegmental tract, dmpNr–dorsomedial part of parvicellular red nucleus, EW–Edinger-Westphal nucleus, FR–fasciculus retroflexus, MLF–medial longitudinal fasciculus, mNr–magnocellular red nucleus, MTT–medial tegmental tract, NB–nucleus accessorius medialis of Bechterew, ND–nucleus of Darkschewitsch, SCP–superior cerebellar peduncle, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, III–oculomotor nucleus, IV–trochlear nucleus.
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pone-0006623-g010: Human red nucleus and its surrounding structures.Upper photomicrographs (A-H) showing distribution of myelinated fiber bundles stained by myelin stain in the human mesodiencephalic structure of successive serial sections. Section A is the most rostral. The human NB is the dorsomedial cell-rich area of the red nucleus. Scale bar = 500 µm in H (also applies to A–G). Lower scale drawing showing the distribution of Nissl-stained cells found in the human mesodiencephalic structure as indicated by dots in the drawings of 15 successive serial sections. Section 1 is the most rostral. Sections 13 and 14 show giant mNr cells as large dots indicated by arrowheads. The number in the left corner of each photomicrograph and drawing is the rostrocaudal distance (in micrometers) from the rostral tip of the red nucleus. (A) – (H) correspond to Figs. 11A–H. CTT–central tegmental tract, dmpNr–dorsomedial part of parvicellular red nucleus, EW–Edinger-Westphal nucleus, FR–fasciculus retroflexus, MLF–medial longitudinal fasciculus, mNr–magnocellular red nucleus, MTT–medial tegmental tract, NB–nucleus accessorius medialis of Bechterew, ND–nucleus of Darkschewitsch, SCP–superior cerebellar peduncle, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, III–oculomotor nucleus, IV–trochlear nucleus.

Mentions: This case demonstrates that in the macaque, dmpNr and NB are targeted by the middle premotor and FEF regions, however projection to the ND has yet to be definitively shown. Owing to the unlabeled area, the leg-foot region of the premotor area can be said to project to the lateral part of the vlpNr, and F5 to the NB.


A comparative neuroanatomical study of the red nucleus of the cat, macaque and human.

Onodera S, Hicks TP - PLoS ONE (2009)

Human red nucleus and its surrounding structures.Upper photomicrographs (A-H) showing distribution of myelinated fiber bundles stained by myelin stain in the human mesodiencephalic structure of successive serial sections. Section A is the most rostral. The human NB is the dorsomedial cell-rich area of the red nucleus. Scale bar = 500 µm in H (also applies to A–G). Lower scale drawing showing the distribution of Nissl-stained cells found in the human mesodiencephalic structure as indicated by dots in the drawings of 15 successive serial sections. Section 1 is the most rostral. Sections 13 and 14 show giant mNr cells as large dots indicated by arrowheads. The number in the left corner of each photomicrograph and drawing is the rostrocaudal distance (in micrometers) from the rostral tip of the red nucleus. (A) – (H) correspond to Figs. 11A–H. CTT–central tegmental tract, dmpNr–dorsomedial part of parvicellular red nucleus, EW–Edinger-Westphal nucleus, FR–fasciculus retroflexus, MLF–medial longitudinal fasciculus, mNr–magnocellular red nucleus, MTT–medial tegmental tract, NB–nucleus accessorius medialis of Bechterew, ND–nucleus of Darkschewitsch, SCP–superior cerebellar peduncle, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, III–oculomotor nucleus, IV–trochlear nucleus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2722087&req=5

pone-0006623-g010: Human red nucleus and its surrounding structures.Upper photomicrographs (A-H) showing distribution of myelinated fiber bundles stained by myelin stain in the human mesodiencephalic structure of successive serial sections. Section A is the most rostral. The human NB is the dorsomedial cell-rich area of the red nucleus. Scale bar = 500 µm in H (also applies to A–G). Lower scale drawing showing the distribution of Nissl-stained cells found in the human mesodiencephalic structure as indicated by dots in the drawings of 15 successive serial sections. Section 1 is the most rostral. Sections 13 and 14 show giant mNr cells as large dots indicated by arrowheads. The number in the left corner of each photomicrograph and drawing is the rostrocaudal distance (in micrometers) from the rostral tip of the red nucleus. (A) – (H) correspond to Figs. 11A–H. CTT–central tegmental tract, dmpNr–dorsomedial part of parvicellular red nucleus, EW–Edinger-Westphal nucleus, FR–fasciculus retroflexus, MLF–medial longitudinal fasciculus, mNr–magnocellular red nucleus, MTT–medial tegmental tract, NB–nucleus accessorius medialis of Bechterew, ND–nucleus of Darkschewitsch, SCP–superior cerebellar peduncle, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, III–oculomotor nucleus, IV–trochlear nucleus.
Mentions: This case demonstrates that in the macaque, dmpNr and NB are targeted by the middle premotor and FEF regions, however projection to the ND has yet to be definitively shown. Owing to the unlabeled area, the leg-foot region of the premotor area can be said to project to the lateral part of the vlpNr, and F5 to the NB.

Bottom Line: Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex.The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan. sonodera@iwate-med.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: The human red nucleus (Nr) is comparatively less well-studied than that of cats or monkeys. Given the functional importance of reticular and midbrain structures in control of movement and locomotion as well as from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated the nature and extent of any differences in Nr projections to the olivary complex in quadrupedal and bipedal species. Using neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques we developed a "neural sheet" hypothesis allowing us to propose how rubro-olivary relations differ among the three species.

Methods and findings: Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase staining supports findings that the cat's nucleus accessories medialis of Bechtrew (NB) projects mainly to the lateral bend of the principal olive. We clarified boundaries among nucleus of Darkschewitsch (ND), NB and parvicellular red nucleus (pNr) of the cat's neural sheet. The macaque's ND-medial accessory olivary projection is rostro-caudally organized and the dorsomedial and ventrolateral parts of the macaque's pNr may project to the principal olive's rostral and caudal dorsal lamella; in cat it projects as well to pNr. Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.

Conclusions: Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex. We propose the Nr of cats and monkeys comprise the ND, NB and pNr in a zonal sheet-like structure, retaining clear nuclear boundaries and an isolated, well-developed mNr. The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray. Phylogenetically, the NB may have been translocated into a roll-shaped Nr in the reticular formation, the dorsomedial portion of which might correspond to the cat's and monkey's NB.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus