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A comparative neuroanatomical study of the red nucleus of the cat, macaque and human.

Onodera S, Hicks TP - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex.The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan. sonodera@iwate-med.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: The human red nucleus (Nr) is comparatively less well-studied than that of cats or monkeys. Given the functional importance of reticular and midbrain structures in control of movement and locomotion as well as from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated the nature and extent of any differences in Nr projections to the olivary complex in quadrupedal and bipedal species. Using neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques we developed a "neural sheet" hypothesis allowing us to propose how rubro-olivary relations differ among the three species.

Methods and findings: Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase staining supports findings that the cat's nucleus accessories medialis of Bechtrew (NB) projects mainly to the lateral bend of the principal olive. We clarified boundaries among nucleus of Darkschewitsch (ND), NB and parvicellular red nucleus (pNr) of the cat's neural sheet. The macaque's ND-medial accessory olivary projection is rostro-caudally organized and the dorsomedial and ventrolateral parts of the macaque's pNr may project to the principal olive's rostral and caudal dorsal lamella; in cat it projects as well to pNr. Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.

Conclusions: Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex. We propose the Nr of cats and monkeys comprise the ND, NB and pNr in a zonal sheet-like structure, retaining clear nuclear boundaries and an isolated, well-developed mNr. The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray. Phylogenetically, the NB may have been translocated into a roll-shaped Nr in the reticular formation, the dorsomedial portion of which might correspond to the cat's and monkey's NB.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of WGA-HRP-labelled cells in mesodiencephalic structures (case 3).Drawings are arranged rostrocaudally; section A is the most rostral. One dot represents one labelled cell. Large dot shows a large labelled cell. dmpNr–dorsomedial part of parvicellular red nucleus, FR–fasciculus retroflexus, mNr–magnocellular red nucleus, NB–nucleus accessorius medialis of Bechterew, ND–nucleus of Darkschewitsch, Nint–interstitial nucleus of Cajal, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, III–oculomotor nucleus.
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pone-0006623-g005: Distribution of WGA-HRP-labelled cells in mesodiencephalic structures (case 3).Drawings are arranged rostrocaudally; section A is the most rostral. One dot represents one labelled cell. Large dot shows a large labelled cell. dmpNr–dorsomedial part of parvicellular red nucleus, FR–fasciculus retroflexus, mNr–magnocellular red nucleus, NB–nucleus accessorius medialis of Bechterew, ND–nucleus of Darkschewitsch, Nint–interstitial nucleus of Cajal, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, III–oculomotor nucleus.

Mentions: Case 4 also comprised 6 injections of 1.0-µl and a 45-hr wait for tissue preparation. It encompassed the middle part of the olivary complex. The rostral (XII-XI level) part of dl-PO and most of the MAO were stain-free. The caudal (VIII–V) part of dl of PO and a restricted spot in the middle of MAO were heavily stained, with additional partial involvement of the surrounding reticular formation.


A comparative neuroanatomical study of the red nucleus of the cat, macaque and human.

Onodera S, Hicks TP - PLoS ONE (2009)

Distribution of WGA-HRP-labelled cells in mesodiencephalic structures (case 3).Drawings are arranged rostrocaudally; section A is the most rostral. One dot represents one labelled cell. Large dot shows a large labelled cell. dmpNr–dorsomedial part of parvicellular red nucleus, FR–fasciculus retroflexus, mNr–magnocellular red nucleus, NB–nucleus accessorius medialis of Bechterew, ND–nucleus of Darkschewitsch, Nint–interstitial nucleus of Cajal, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, III–oculomotor nucleus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2722087&req=5

pone-0006623-g005: Distribution of WGA-HRP-labelled cells in mesodiencephalic structures (case 3).Drawings are arranged rostrocaudally; section A is the most rostral. One dot represents one labelled cell. Large dot shows a large labelled cell. dmpNr–dorsomedial part of parvicellular red nucleus, FR–fasciculus retroflexus, mNr–magnocellular red nucleus, NB–nucleus accessorius medialis of Bechterew, ND–nucleus of Darkschewitsch, Nint–interstitial nucleus of Cajal, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, III–oculomotor nucleus.
Mentions: Case 4 also comprised 6 injections of 1.0-µl and a 45-hr wait for tissue preparation. It encompassed the middle part of the olivary complex. The rostral (XII-XI level) part of dl-PO and most of the MAO were stain-free. The caudal (VIII–V) part of dl of PO and a restricted spot in the middle of MAO were heavily stained, with additional partial involvement of the surrounding reticular formation.

Bottom Line: Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex.The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan. sonodera@iwate-med.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: The human red nucleus (Nr) is comparatively less well-studied than that of cats or monkeys. Given the functional importance of reticular and midbrain structures in control of movement and locomotion as well as from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated the nature and extent of any differences in Nr projections to the olivary complex in quadrupedal and bipedal species. Using neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques we developed a "neural sheet" hypothesis allowing us to propose how rubro-olivary relations differ among the three species.

Methods and findings: Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase staining supports findings that the cat's nucleus accessories medialis of Bechtrew (NB) projects mainly to the lateral bend of the principal olive. We clarified boundaries among nucleus of Darkschewitsch (ND), NB and parvicellular red nucleus (pNr) of the cat's neural sheet. The macaque's ND-medial accessory olivary projection is rostro-caudally organized and the dorsomedial and ventrolateral parts of the macaque's pNr may project to the principal olive's rostral and caudal dorsal lamella; in cat it projects as well to pNr. Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.

Conclusions: Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex. We propose the Nr of cats and monkeys comprise the ND, NB and pNr in a zonal sheet-like structure, retaining clear nuclear boundaries and an isolated, well-developed mNr. The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray. Phylogenetically, the NB may have been translocated into a roll-shaped Nr in the reticular formation, the dorsomedial portion of which might correspond to the cat's and monkey's NB.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus