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A comparative neuroanatomical study of the red nucleus of the cat, macaque and human.

Onodera S, Hicks TP - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex.The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan. sonodera@iwate-med.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: The human red nucleus (Nr) is comparatively less well-studied than that of cats or monkeys. Given the functional importance of reticular and midbrain structures in control of movement and locomotion as well as from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated the nature and extent of any differences in Nr projections to the olivary complex in quadrupedal and bipedal species. Using neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques we developed a "neural sheet" hypothesis allowing us to propose how rubro-olivary relations differ among the three species.

Methods and findings: Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase staining supports findings that the cat's nucleus accessories medialis of Bechtrew (NB) projects mainly to the lateral bend of the principal olive. We clarified boundaries among nucleus of Darkschewitsch (ND), NB and parvicellular red nucleus (pNr) of the cat's neural sheet. The macaque's ND-medial accessory olivary projection is rostro-caudally organized and the dorsomedial and ventrolateral parts of the macaque's pNr may project to the principal olive's rostral and caudal dorsal lamella; in cat it projects as well to pNr. Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.

Conclusions: Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex. We propose the Nr of cats and monkeys comprise the ND, NB and pNr in a zonal sheet-like structure, retaining clear nuclear boundaries and an isolated, well-developed mNr. The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray. Phylogenetically, the NB may have been translocated into a roll-shaped Nr in the reticular formation, the dorsomedial portion of which might correspond to the cat's and monkey's NB.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

WGA-HRP injection sites in cat's inferior olivary complex (case 1 and 2).The upper two columns comprise a scale drawing of the distribution of injected WGA-HRP solution in the cat's inferior olivary complex in case 1 and 2. The Roman numerals (II-XIV) represent levels of the inferior olivary complex from caudal to rostral (Brodal, 1940 [60]). The crossed stripes indicate a heavily stained area. Lower photomicrographs show the maximal extent of injected wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) at the olivary level (Fig. 1) in case 1 (A) and case 2 (B). DAO–dorsal accessory olive, MAO–medial accessory olive, PO–principal olive, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, β–nucleus β. Scale bar = 500 µm in B (also applies to A).
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pone-0006623-g001: WGA-HRP injection sites in cat's inferior olivary complex (case 1 and 2).The upper two columns comprise a scale drawing of the distribution of injected WGA-HRP solution in the cat's inferior olivary complex in case 1 and 2. The Roman numerals (II-XIV) represent levels of the inferior olivary complex from caudal to rostral (Brodal, 1940 [60]). The crossed stripes indicate a heavily stained area. Lower photomicrographs show the maximal extent of injected wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) at the olivary level (Fig. 1) in case 1 (A) and case 2 (B). DAO–dorsal accessory olive, MAO–medial accessory olive, PO–principal olive, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, β–nucleus β. Scale bar = 500 µm in B (also applies to A).

Mentions: Frontal, dorsal and lateral views of the structures of the mesodiencephalic nuclei of the cat, macaque and human were drawn from the cat's and macaque's WGA-HRP labelled serial sections for cat, macaque and human (herein illustrated sequentially) using Nissl stained serial sections. Three-dimensional images were drawn freehand according to these frontal, dorsal and lateral views.


A comparative neuroanatomical study of the red nucleus of the cat, macaque and human.

Onodera S, Hicks TP - PLoS ONE (2009)

WGA-HRP injection sites in cat's inferior olivary complex (case 1 and 2).The upper two columns comprise a scale drawing of the distribution of injected WGA-HRP solution in the cat's inferior olivary complex in case 1 and 2. The Roman numerals (II-XIV) represent levels of the inferior olivary complex from caudal to rostral (Brodal, 1940 [60]). The crossed stripes indicate a heavily stained area. Lower photomicrographs show the maximal extent of injected wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) at the olivary level (Fig. 1) in case 1 (A) and case 2 (B). DAO–dorsal accessory olive, MAO–medial accessory olive, PO–principal olive, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, β–nucleus β. Scale bar = 500 µm in B (also applies to A).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2722087&req=5

pone-0006623-g001: WGA-HRP injection sites in cat's inferior olivary complex (case 1 and 2).The upper two columns comprise a scale drawing of the distribution of injected WGA-HRP solution in the cat's inferior olivary complex in case 1 and 2. The Roman numerals (II-XIV) represent levels of the inferior olivary complex from caudal to rostral (Brodal, 1940 [60]). The crossed stripes indicate a heavily stained area. Lower photomicrographs show the maximal extent of injected wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) at the olivary level (Fig. 1) in case 1 (A) and case 2 (B). DAO–dorsal accessory olive, MAO–medial accessory olive, PO–principal olive, vlpNr–ventorlateral part of parvicellular red nucleus, β–nucleus β. Scale bar = 500 µm in B (also applies to A).
Mentions: Frontal, dorsal and lateral views of the structures of the mesodiencephalic nuclei of the cat, macaque and human were drawn from the cat's and macaque's WGA-HRP labelled serial sections for cat, macaque and human (herein illustrated sequentially) using Nissl stained serial sections. Three-dimensional images were drawn freehand according to these frontal, dorsal and lateral views.

Bottom Line: Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex.The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan. sonodera@iwate-med.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: The human red nucleus (Nr) is comparatively less well-studied than that of cats or monkeys. Given the functional importance of reticular and midbrain structures in control of movement and locomotion as well as from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated the nature and extent of any differences in Nr projections to the olivary complex in quadrupedal and bipedal species. Using neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques we developed a "neural sheet" hypothesis allowing us to propose how rubro-olivary relations differ among the three species.

Methods and findings: Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase staining supports findings that the cat's nucleus accessories medialis of Bechtrew (NB) projects mainly to the lateral bend of the principal olive. We clarified boundaries among nucleus of Darkschewitsch (ND), NB and parvicellular red nucleus (pNr) of the cat's neural sheet. The macaque's ND-medial accessory olivary projection is rostro-caudally organized and the dorsomedial and ventrolateral parts of the macaque's pNr may project to the principal olive's rostral and caudal dorsal lamella; in cat it projects as well to pNr. Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract.

Conclusions: Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex. We propose the Nr of cats and monkeys comprise the ND, NB and pNr in a zonal sheet-like structure, retaining clear nuclear boundaries and an isolated, well-developed mNr. The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr) in the human central gray. Phylogenetically, the NB may have been translocated into a roll-shaped Nr in the reticular formation, the dorsomedial portion of which might correspond to the cat's and monkey's NB.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus