Limits...
Air pollution exposures and circulating biomarkers of effect in a susceptible population: clues to potential causal component mixtures and mechanisms.

Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Gillen DL, Polidori A, Arhami M, Kleinman MT, Vaziri ND, Longhurst J, Sioutas C - Environ. Health Perspect. (2009)

Bottom Line: We analyzed the relation of biomarkers to exposures with mixed effects models adjusted for potential confounders.We found weaker associations with statin (sTNF-RII, CRP) and clopidogrel use (sP-selectin).Traffic-related air pollutants are associated with increased systemic inflammation, increased platelet activation, and decreased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, which may be partly behind air pollutant-related increases in systemic inflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92617, USA. rdelfino@uci.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation have been proposed to explain associations of ambient air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Experimental evidence suggests that organic components and ultrafine particles (UFP) are important.

Methods: We conducted a panel study of 60 elderly subjects with coronary artery disease living in retirement communities within the Los Angeles, California, air basin. Weekly biomarkers of inflammation included plasma interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha soluble receptor II (sTNF-RII), soluble platelet selectin (sP-selectin), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Biomarkers of erythrocyte antioxidant activity included glutathione peroxidase-1 and superoxide dismutase. Exposures included outdoor home daily particle mass [particulate matter < 0.25, 0.25-2.5, and 2.5-10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(0.25), PM(0.25-2.5), PM(2.5-10))], and hourly elemental and black carbon (EC-BC), estimated primary and secondary organic carbon (OC(pri), SOC), particle number (PN), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides-nitrogen dioxide (NO(x)-NO(2)). We analyzed the relation of biomarkers to exposures with mixed effects models adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: Primary combustion markers (EC-BC, OC(pri), CO, NO(x)-NO(2)), but not SOC, were positively associated with inflammatory biomarkers and inversely associated with erythrocyte anti-oxidant enzymes (n = 578). PN and PM(0.25) were more strongly associated with biomarkers than PM(0.25-2.5). Associations for all exposures were stronger during cooler periods when only OC(pri), PN, and NO(x) were higher. We found weaker associations with statin (sTNF-RII, CRP) and clopidogrel use (sP-selectin).

Conclusions: Traffic-related air pollutants are associated with increased systemic inflammation, increased platelet activation, and decreased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, which may be partly behind air pollutant-related increases in systemic inflammation. Differences in association by particle size, OC fraction, and seasonal period suggest components carried by UFP are important.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Associations of biomarkers with outdoor air pollutants on days 1, 3, 5, and 9: differences by medication use among 44 subjects living in the San Gabriel Valley. (A) sTNF-RII (pg/mL). (B) sP-selectin (ng/mL). Expected change in the biomarker (adjusted coefficient and 95% CI) corresponds to an interquartile range change in the air pollutant (Table 3).
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2721866&req=5

f5-ehp-117-1232: Associations of biomarkers with outdoor air pollutants on days 1, 3, 5, and 9: differences by medication use among 44 subjects living in the San Gabriel Valley. (A) sTNF-RII (pg/mL). (B) sP-selectin (ng/mL). Expected change in the biomarker (adjusted coefficient and 95% CI) corresponds to an interquartile range change in the air pollutant (Table 3).

Mentions: Furthermore, associations were stronger among subjects not taking statins for sTNF-RII and stronger among subjects not taking clopidogrel for sP-selectin (Figure 5). There were few consistent pollutant interactions with ACE/ARB.


Air pollution exposures and circulating biomarkers of effect in a susceptible population: clues to potential causal component mixtures and mechanisms.

Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Gillen DL, Polidori A, Arhami M, Kleinman MT, Vaziri ND, Longhurst J, Sioutas C - Environ. Health Perspect. (2009)

Associations of biomarkers with outdoor air pollutants on days 1, 3, 5, and 9: differences by medication use among 44 subjects living in the San Gabriel Valley. (A) sTNF-RII (pg/mL). (B) sP-selectin (ng/mL). Expected change in the biomarker (adjusted coefficient and 95% CI) corresponds to an interquartile range change in the air pollutant (Table 3).
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2721866&req=5

f5-ehp-117-1232: Associations of biomarkers with outdoor air pollutants on days 1, 3, 5, and 9: differences by medication use among 44 subjects living in the San Gabriel Valley. (A) sTNF-RII (pg/mL). (B) sP-selectin (ng/mL). Expected change in the biomarker (adjusted coefficient and 95% CI) corresponds to an interquartile range change in the air pollutant (Table 3).
Mentions: Furthermore, associations were stronger among subjects not taking statins for sTNF-RII and stronger among subjects not taking clopidogrel for sP-selectin (Figure 5). There were few consistent pollutant interactions with ACE/ARB.

Bottom Line: We analyzed the relation of biomarkers to exposures with mixed effects models adjusted for potential confounders.We found weaker associations with statin (sTNF-RII, CRP) and clopidogrel use (sP-selectin).Traffic-related air pollutants are associated with increased systemic inflammation, increased platelet activation, and decreased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, which may be partly behind air pollutant-related increases in systemic inflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92617, USA. rdelfino@uci.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation have been proposed to explain associations of ambient air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Experimental evidence suggests that organic components and ultrafine particles (UFP) are important.

Methods: We conducted a panel study of 60 elderly subjects with coronary artery disease living in retirement communities within the Los Angeles, California, air basin. Weekly biomarkers of inflammation included plasma interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha soluble receptor II (sTNF-RII), soluble platelet selectin (sP-selectin), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Biomarkers of erythrocyte antioxidant activity included glutathione peroxidase-1 and superoxide dismutase. Exposures included outdoor home daily particle mass [particulate matter < 0.25, 0.25-2.5, and 2.5-10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(0.25), PM(0.25-2.5), PM(2.5-10))], and hourly elemental and black carbon (EC-BC), estimated primary and secondary organic carbon (OC(pri), SOC), particle number (PN), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides-nitrogen dioxide (NO(x)-NO(2)). We analyzed the relation of biomarkers to exposures with mixed effects models adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: Primary combustion markers (EC-BC, OC(pri), CO, NO(x)-NO(2)), but not SOC, were positively associated with inflammatory biomarkers and inversely associated with erythrocyte anti-oxidant enzymes (n = 578). PN and PM(0.25) were more strongly associated with biomarkers than PM(0.25-2.5). Associations for all exposures were stronger during cooler periods when only OC(pri), PN, and NO(x) were higher. We found weaker associations with statin (sTNF-RII, CRP) and clopidogrel use (sP-selectin).

Conclusions: Traffic-related air pollutants are associated with increased systemic inflammation, increased platelet activation, and decreased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, which may be partly behind air pollutant-related increases in systemic inflammation. Differences in association by particle size, OC fraction, and seasonal period suggest components carried by UFP are important.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus