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Racial differences in paraoxonase-1 (PON1): a factor in the health of southerners?

Davis KA, Crow JA, Chambers HW, Meek EC, Chambers JE - Environ. Health Perspect. (2009)

Bottom Line: Cotinine levels indicated that all samples came from non-smokers and that CRP levels were higher in African Americans than in Caucasians and higher in females than in males.CRP levels showed no association with paraoxonase activities.These data present initial observations for use in characterizing the poorer cardiovascular health status of the population in the southern United States and more specifically southern African Americans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Environmental Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762-6100, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The southern United States (excluding Florida) has the highest age-adjusted rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the country, with African Americans having a higher prevalence of CVD than Caucasians. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein particles, participates both in the hydrolysis of oxidized lipids (thus protecting against atherosclerosis) and in the hydrolysis of organophosphates. Higher paraoxonase activity has been associated with lower risk of atherosclerosis.

Objectives: In this study we characterized the distribution of the functional PON1(Q192R) polymorphisms (PON status as assessed by diazoxonase to paraoxonase ratios) and the PON1 activity levels in 200 adult males and females of both races (50 in each race/sex class) from the southern United States from commercially obtained blood bank serum samples.

Methods: We used spectrophotometric methods with serum to determine PON1 status, arylesterase activities (phenyl acetate hydrolysis), and levels of cotinine and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Results: African Americans had higher paraoxonase activities but lower diazoxonase activities than did Caucasians, consistent with African Americans having a lower proportion of the functional genotype QQ (QQ 15%, QR 34%, RR 44%, 7% indeterminate), than did Caucasians (QQ 60%, QR 31%, RR 7%, 2% indeterminate). Cotinine levels indicated that all samples came from non-smokers and that CRP levels were higher in African Americans than in Caucasians and higher in females than in males. CRP levels showed no association with paraoxonase activities.

Conclusions: These data present initial observations for use in characterizing the poorer cardiovascular health status of the population in the southern United States and more specifically southern African Americans.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

DZOase activities versus POase activities in sera of male and female Caucasian and African-American southerners, as well as the distribution of individuals into three PON1192 functional genotypes (QQ, QR, and RR). Abbreviations: AAF, African-American female; AAM, African-American male; CF, Caucasian female; CM, Caucasian male. The sample population (n = 191) consisted of 47 AAFs, 46 AAMs, 49 CFs, and 49 CMs. Results from 3 AAFs, 4 AAMs, 1 CF, and 1 CF were indeterminate and thus were not included in the plot.
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f1-ehp-117-1226: DZOase activities versus POase activities in sera of male and female Caucasian and African-American southerners, as well as the distribution of individuals into three PON1192 functional genotypes (QQ, QR, and RR). Abbreviations: AAF, African-American female; AAM, African-American male; CF, Caucasian female; CM, Caucasian male. The sample population (n = 191) consisted of 47 AAFs, 46 AAMs, 49 CFs, and 49 CMs. Results from 3 AAFs, 4 AAMs, 1 CF, and 1 CF were indeterminate and thus were not included in the plot.

Mentions: The overall DZOase and POase activities for all subjects and for both races are shown in Table 1, and the DZOase versus POase plots are shown in Figure 1. Similar to results of Richter and Furlong (1999), plotting hydrolytic rates separated individuals into one of three functional PON1192 genotypes for determining PON1 status. The frequency distribution of the functional genotypes for the entire population was QQ (0.375), QR (0.325), and RR (0.255). Nine data points (frequency of 0.045) were indeterminate for apparent QR and RR genotypes, seven of which were from African Americans (three females, four males) and two from Caucasians (one female, one male); these were not included in Figure 1. These nine indeterminate individuals all fell in the region between the QR and RR functional genotype. These individuals may have nonsense or missense mutations as previously described by Jarvik et al. (2002).


Racial differences in paraoxonase-1 (PON1): a factor in the health of southerners?

Davis KA, Crow JA, Chambers HW, Meek EC, Chambers JE - Environ. Health Perspect. (2009)

DZOase activities versus POase activities in sera of male and female Caucasian and African-American southerners, as well as the distribution of individuals into three PON1192 functional genotypes (QQ, QR, and RR). Abbreviations: AAF, African-American female; AAM, African-American male; CF, Caucasian female; CM, Caucasian male. The sample population (n = 191) consisted of 47 AAFs, 46 AAMs, 49 CFs, and 49 CMs. Results from 3 AAFs, 4 AAMs, 1 CF, and 1 CF were indeterminate and thus were not included in the plot.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2721865&req=5

f1-ehp-117-1226: DZOase activities versus POase activities in sera of male and female Caucasian and African-American southerners, as well as the distribution of individuals into three PON1192 functional genotypes (QQ, QR, and RR). Abbreviations: AAF, African-American female; AAM, African-American male; CF, Caucasian female; CM, Caucasian male. The sample population (n = 191) consisted of 47 AAFs, 46 AAMs, 49 CFs, and 49 CMs. Results from 3 AAFs, 4 AAMs, 1 CF, and 1 CF were indeterminate and thus were not included in the plot.
Mentions: The overall DZOase and POase activities for all subjects and for both races are shown in Table 1, and the DZOase versus POase plots are shown in Figure 1. Similar to results of Richter and Furlong (1999), plotting hydrolytic rates separated individuals into one of three functional PON1192 genotypes for determining PON1 status. The frequency distribution of the functional genotypes for the entire population was QQ (0.375), QR (0.325), and RR (0.255). Nine data points (frequency of 0.045) were indeterminate for apparent QR and RR genotypes, seven of which were from African Americans (three females, four males) and two from Caucasians (one female, one male); these were not included in Figure 1. These nine indeterminate individuals all fell in the region between the QR and RR functional genotype. These individuals may have nonsense or missense mutations as previously described by Jarvik et al. (2002).

Bottom Line: Cotinine levels indicated that all samples came from non-smokers and that CRP levels were higher in African Americans than in Caucasians and higher in females than in males.CRP levels showed no association with paraoxonase activities.These data present initial observations for use in characterizing the poorer cardiovascular health status of the population in the southern United States and more specifically southern African Americans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Environmental Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762-6100, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The southern United States (excluding Florida) has the highest age-adjusted rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the country, with African Americans having a higher prevalence of CVD than Caucasians. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein particles, participates both in the hydrolysis of oxidized lipids (thus protecting against atherosclerosis) and in the hydrolysis of organophosphates. Higher paraoxonase activity has been associated with lower risk of atherosclerosis.

Objectives: In this study we characterized the distribution of the functional PON1(Q192R) polymorphisms (PON status as assessed by diazoxonase to paraoxonase ratios) and the PON1 activity levels in 200 adult males and females of both races (50 in each race/sex class) from the southern United States from commercially obtained blood bank serum samples.

Methods: We used spectrophotometric methods with serum to determine PON1 status, arylesterase activities (phenyl acetate hydrolysis), and levels of cotinine and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Results: African Americans had higher paraoxonase activities but lower diazoxonase activities than did Caucasians, consistent with African Americans having a lower proportion of the functional genotype QQ (QQ 15%, QR 34%, RR 44%, 7% indeterminate), than did Caucasians (QQ 60%, QR 31%, RR 7%, 2% indeterminate). Cotinine levels indicated that all samples came from non-smokers and that CRP levels were higher in African Americans than in Caucasians and higher in females than in males. CRP levels showed no association with paraoxonase activities.

Conclusions: These data present initial observations for use in characterizing the poorer cardiovascular health status of the population in the southern United States and more specifically southern African Americans.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus