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Trypanosoma rangeli: a new perspective for studying the modulation of immune reactions of Rhodnius prolixus.

Garcia ES, Castro DP, Figueiredo MB, Genta FA, Azambuja P - Parasit Vectors (2009)

Bottom Line: Insects are exposed to a wide range of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses) and have interconnected powerful immune reactions.Although insects lack an acquired immune system they have well-developed innate immune defences that allow a general and rapid response to infectious agents.Over the last few decades we have observed a dramatic increase in the knowledge of insect innate immunity, which relies on both humoral and cellular responses.However, innate reactions to natural insect pathogens and insect-transmitted pathogens, such as parasites, still remain poorly understood.In this review, we briefly introduce the general immune system of insects and highlight our current knowledge of these reactions focusing on the interactions of Trypanosoma rangeli with Rhodnius prolixus, an important model for innate immunity investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia de Insetos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, 21045-900, RJ, Brazil. egarcia@fiocruz.br.

ABSTRACT
Insects are exposed to a wide range of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses) and have interconnected powerful immune reactions. Although insects lack an acquired immune system they have well-developed innate immune defences that allow a general and rapid response to infectious agents.Over the last few decades we have observed a dramatic increase in the knowledge of insect innate immunity, which relies on both humoral and cellular responses. However, innate reactions to natural insect pathogens and insect-transmitted pathogens, such as parasites, still remain poorly understood.In this review, we briefly introduce the general immune system of insects and highlight our current knowledge of these reactions focusing on the interactions of Trypanosoma rangeli with Rhodnius prolixus, an important model for innate immunity investigation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A schematic illustration of Trypanosoma rangeli regulating the Rhodnius prolixus immune reactions. White arrows (↓) indicate immune reactions decrease after infection of R. prolixus with T. rangeli. In the case of AMP production by R. prolixus, there is no known (?) regulation by T. rangeli.
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Figure 5: A schematic illustration of Trypanosoma rangeli regulating the Rhodnius prolixus immune reactions. White arrows (↓) indicate immune reactions decrease after infection of R. prolixus with T. rangeli. In the case of AMP production by R. prolixus, there is no known (?) regulation by T. rangeli.

Mentions: Interventions to study the triatomine vector biology may be useful to develop new concepts and means to block parasite transmission, both of which are urgent and necessary. The recent investigations into R. prolixus immune reactions relating to T. rangeli development have established a new conceptual hypothesis: a fine modulation of insect factors can interfere with parasite development and this is important for the establishment of infection, being an attractive target for intervention (Fig. 5).


Trypanosoma rangeli: a new perspective for studying the modulation of immune reactions of Rhodnius prolixus.

Garcia ES, Castro DP, Figueiredo MB, Genta FA, Azambuja P - Parasit Vectors (2009)

A schematic illustration of Trypanosoma rangeli regulating the Rhodnius prolixus immune reactions. White arrows (↓) indicate immune reactions decrease after infection of R. prolixus with T. rangeli. In the case of AMP production by R. prolixus, there is no known (?) regulation by T. rangeli.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2719633&req=5

Figure 5: A schematic illustration of Trypanosoma rangeli regulating the Rhodnius prolixus immune reactions. White arrows (↓) indicate immune reactions decrease after infection of R. prolixus with T. rangeli. In the case of AMP production by R. prolixus, there is no known (?) regulation by T. rangeli.
Mentions: Interventions to study the triatomine vector biology may be useful to develop new concepts and means to block parasite transmission, both of which are urgent and necessary. The recent investigations into R. prolixus immune reactions relating to T. rangeli development have established a new conceptual hypothesis: a fine modulation of insect factors can interfere with parasite development and this is important for the establishment of infection, being an attractive target for intervention (Fig. 5).

Bottom Line: Insects are exposed to a wide range of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses) and have interconnected powerful immune reactions.Although insects lack an acquired immune system they have well-developed innate immune defences that allow a general and rapid response to infectious agents.Over the last few decades we have observed a dramatic increase in the knowledge of insect innate immunity, which relies on both humoral and cellular responses.However, innate reactions to natural insect pathogens and insect-transmitted pathogens, such as parasites, still remain poorly understood.In this review, we briefly introduce the general immune system of insects and highlight our current knowledge of these reactions focusing on the interactions of Trypanosoma rangeli with Rhodnius prolixus, an important model for innate immunity investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia de Insetos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, 21045-900, RJ, Brazil. egarcia@fiocruz.br.

ABSTRACT
Insects are exposed to a wide range of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses) and have interconnected powerful immune reactions. Although insects lack an acquired immune system they have well-developed innate immune defences that allow a general and rapid response to infectious agents.Over the last few decades we have observed a dramatic increase in the knowledge of insect innate immunity, which relies on both humoral and cellular responses. However, innate reactions to natural insect pathogens and insect-transmitted pathogens, such as parasites, still remain poorly understood.In this review, we briefly introduce the general immune system of insects and highlight our current knowledge of these reactions focusing on the interactions of Trypanosoma rangeli with Rhodnius prolixus, an important model for innate immunity investigation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus