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Minocycline treatment inhibits microglial activation and alters spinal levels of endocannabinoids in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

Guasti L, Richardson D, Jhaveri M, Eldeeb K, Barrett D, Elphick MR, Alexander SP, Kendall D, Michael GJ, Chapman V - Mol Pain (2009)

Bottom Line: Endocannabinoids (ECs) are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro.Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), in neuropathic spinal cord.Minocycline treatment significantly (P < 0.01) decreased levels of 2-AG and significantly (P < 0.01) increased levels of PEA in the ipsilateral spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to the contralateral spinal cord.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, UK. l.guasti@qmul.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Activation of spinal microglia contributes to aberrant pain responses associated with neuropathic pain states. Endocannabinoids (ECs) are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro. Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), in neuropathic spinal cord. Selective spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats resulted in mechanical allodynia and the presence of activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Chronic daily treatment with minocycline (30 mg/kg, ip for 14 days) significantly reduced the development of mechanical allodynia at days 5, 10 and 14 post-SNL surgery, compared to vehicle-treated SNL rats (P < 0.001). Minocycline treatment also significantly attenuated OX-42 immunoreactivity, a marker of activated microglia, in the ipsilateral (P < 0.001) and contralateral (P < 0.01) spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to vehicle controls. Minocycline treatment significantly (P < 0.01) decreased levels of 2-AG and significantly (P < 0.01) increased levels of PEA in the ipsilateral spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to the contralateral spinal cord. Thus, activation of microglia affects spinal levels of endocannabinoids and related compounds in neuropathic pain states.

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Chronic minocycline treatment attenuates the spinal nerve ligation-induced increase in OX-42 immunoreactivity (ir) in the lumbar spinal cord. Vehicle (A, B, C, sterile water) or minocycline (D, E, F, 30 mg/kg, ip) was injected daily for 14 days and spinal cords dissected and processed for immunohistochemical detection of OX-42ir at the level of L4 (A-a" and D-d"), L5 (B-b" and E-e") and L6 (C-c" and F-f"). High magnification images of the dorsal area used for OX-42ir signal quantification are also shown. Histograms (G-I) showing effects of minocycline or vehicle in L4-L6 spinal cord OX-42ir (white bars: ipsilateral side; black bars: contralateral side) are shown at the bottom. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 12 sections from 4 rats per group). Data were analysed using Kruskal Wallis non-parametric test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison posthoc analysis, * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 vs ipsilateral-veh, # P < 0.05, ## P < 0.01 vs contralateral-vehicle. Scale bars: F = 1 mm (applies to A-F); f' = 100 μm (applies to a'-f' and a"-f").
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Figure 2: Chronic minocycline treatment attenuates the spinal nerve ligation-induced increase in OX-42 immunoreactivity (ir) in the lumbar spinal cord. Vehicle (A, B, C, sterile water) or minocycline (D, E, F, 30 mg/kg, ip) was injected daily for 14 days and spinal cords dissected and processed for immunohistochemical detection of OX-42ir at the level of L4 (A-a" and D-d"), L5 (B-b" and E-e") and L6 (C-c" and F-f"). High magnification images of the dorsal area used for OX-42ir signal quantification are also shown. Histograms (G-I) showing effects of minocycline or vehicle in L4-L6 spinal cord OX-42ir (white bars: ipsilateral side; black bars: contralateral side) are shown at the bottom. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 12 sections from 4 rats per group). Data were analysed using Kruskal Wallis non-parametric test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison posthoc analysis, * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 vs ipsilateral-veh, # P < 0.05, ## P < 0.01 vs contralateral-vehicle. Scale bars: F = 1 mm (applies to A-F); f' = 100 μm (applies to a'-f' and a"-f").

Mentions: SNL surgery significantly increased OX-42 immunoreactivity in the L4-L6 sections of ipsilateral spinal cord of chronic vehicle-treated rats, compared to the contralateral spinal cord, indicative of spinal microglia activation (Fig 2, OX-42 immunoreactivity, ipsilateral-vehicle, 30.2 ± 0.5; contralateral-vehicle, 17.0 ± 0.3). Chronic minocycline treatment (30 mg/kg, ip) significantly attenuated OX-42 immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral (P < 0.001) and contralateral (P < 0.01) spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to vehicle controls (Fig 2). Thus, effects of minocycline treatment on neuropathic pain behaviour were associated with decreased levels of a marker for activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord of SNL rats. Nevertheless, levels of OX-42 in the ipsilateral spinal cord of SNL rats treated with minocycline were still elevated compared to the contralateral spinal cord of minocycline-treated SNL rats (total: ipsilateral-minocycline, 14.9 ± 1.3; contralateral-minocycline, 6.5 ± 0.7).


Minocycline treatment inhibits microglial activation and alters spinal levels of endocannabinoids in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

Guasti L, Richardson D, Jhaveri M, Eldeeb K, Barrett D, Elphick MR, Alexander SP, Kendall D, Michael GJ, Chapman V - Mol Pain (2009)

Chronic minocycline treatment attenuates the spinal nerve ligation-induced increase in OX-42 immunoreactivity (ir) in the lumbar spinal cord. Vehicle (A, B, C, sterile water) or minocycline (D, E, F, 30 mg/kg, ip) was injected daily for 14 days and spinal cords dissected and processed for immunohistochemical detection of OX-42ir at the level of L4 (A-a" and D-d"), L5 (B-b" and E-e") and L6 (C-c" and F-f"). High magnification images of the dorsal area used for OX-42ir signal quantification are also shown. Histograms (G-I) showing effects of minocycline or vehicle in L4-L6 spinal cord OX-42ir (white bars: ipsilateral side; black bars: contralateral side) are shown at the bottom. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 12 sections from 4 rats per group). Data were analysed using Kruskal Wallis non-parametric test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison posthoc analysis, * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 vs ipsilateral-veh, # P < 0.05, ## P < 0.01 vs contralateral-vehicle. Scale bars: F = 1 mm (applies to A-F); f' = 100 μm (applies to a'-f' and a"-f").
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Figure 2: Chronic minocycline treatment attenuates the spinal nerve ligation-induced increase in OX-42 immunoreactivity (ir) in the lumbar spinal cord. Vehicle (A, B, C, sterile water) or minocycline (D, E, F, 30 mg/kg, ip) was injected daily for 14 days and spinal cords dissected and processed for immunohistochemical detection of OX-42ir at the level of L4 (A-a" and D-d"), L5 (B-b" and E-e") and L6 (C-c" and F-f"). High magnification images of the dorsal area used for OX-42ir signal quantification are also shown. Histograms (G-I) showing effects of minocycline or vehicle in L4-L6 spinal cord OX-42ir (white bars: ipsilateral side; black bars: contralateral side) are shown at the bottom. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 12 sections from 4 rats per group). Data were analysed using Kruskal Wallis non-parametric test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison posthoc analysis, * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 vs ipsilateral-veh, # P < 0.05, ## P < 0.01 vs contralateral-vehicle. Scale bars: F = 1 mm (applies to A-F); f' = 100 μm (applies to a'-f' and a"-f").
Mentions: SNL surgery significantly increased OX-42 immunoreactivity in the L4-L6 sections of ipsilateral spinal cord of chronic vehicle-treated rats, compared to the contralateral spinal cord, indicative of spinal microglia activation (Fig 2, OX-42 immunoreactivity, ipsilateral-vehicle, 30.2 ± 0.5; contralateral-vehicle, 17.0 ± 0.3). Chronic minocycline treatment (30 mg/kg, ip) significantly attenuated OX-42 immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral (P < 0.001) and contralateral (P < 0.01) spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to vehicle controls (Fig 2). Thus, effects of minocycline treatment on neuropathic pain behaviour were associated with decreased levels of a marker for activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord of SNL rats. Nevertheless, levels of OX-42 in the ipsilateral spinal cord of SNL rats treated with minocycline were still elevated compared to the contralateral spinal cord of minocycline-treated SNL rats (total: ipsilateral-minocycline, 14.9 ± 1.3; contralateral-minocycline, 6.5 ± 0.7).

Bottom Line: Endocannabinoids (ECs) are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro.Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), in neuropathic spinal cord.Minocycline treatment significantly (P < 0.01) decreased levels of 2-AG and significantly (P < 0.01) increased levels of PEA in the ipsilateral spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to the contralateral spinal cord.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, UK. l.guasti@qmul.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Activation of spinal microglia contributes to aberrant pain responses associated with neuropathic pain states. Endocannabinoids (ECs) are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro. Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), in neuropathic spinal cord. Selective spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats resulted in mechanical allodynia and the presence of activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Chronic daily treatment with minocycline (30 mg/kg, ip for 14 days) significantly reduced the development of mechanical allodynia at days 5, 10 and 14 post-SNL surgery, compared to vehicle-treated SNL rats (P < 0.001). Minocycline treatment also significantly attenuated OX-42 immunoreactivity, a marker of activated microglia, in the ipsilateral (P < 0.001) and contralateral (P < 0.01) spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to vehicle controls. Minocycline treatment significantly (P < 0.01) decreased levels of 2-AG and significantly (P < 0.01) increased levels of PEA in the ipsilateral spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to the contralateral spinal cord. Thus, activation of microglia affects spinal levels of endocannabinoids and related compounds in neuropathic pain states.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus